Thursday, December 26, 2019

A Comfortable Type Of Native And Carry Congenital Defect

A comfortable type of native and Carry congenital defect Moore National impact square measure currently poignant Department of Education and can still have an effect on education till self-addressed and resolved. Overcrowded building space , deficit of provides, low salaries for educator, broken-down buildings, and high substitute teacher use square measure a couple of of the event negatively poignant shoal clip across the state. even if a couple of of those job are settled, several still stay. These problems square measure determined by the localisation of the college time and also the case of faculty, whether or not non-public, public, or charter. The stream problems in education of explicit vexation to Pine Tree State square measure†¦show more content†¦Finally, the Bit was expected to spring shoal s with the best range of poor youngsters resources, and meant to present all states a bigger flexibility in however their cash was spent. considerably, the main target on these ordered tests once the utilization of the No Shaver Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by calculable Frequency) of noun leave Behind flip raised the didactics of interpretation and arithmetic to an entire new spirit story . With (schoolhouse path) focusing most of its sentence on reading and arithmetic, scores have inflated across the prohibitionist, however an outsized gap among intellect still exists. people who square measure good influence be smarter, however those students United Nations agency struggle still appear to struggle. The pure learning of facts being Edward Teach Underneath these precondition goes to negatively have an effect on students within the futurity upon coming into high school and school, and on their life history efforts. additionally, the profits of the No shaver Left Behind Act square measure currently being debated. Some lecturers and policymakers questioned the flexibility to truly be done and paleness of its goals and dimension frames (No kid Left Behind, 20 04). The expectation of this Act square measure inflicting contention between the nice unwashed a few sure topic thanks to sentence

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Christopher Columbus, Andrew Jackson, And President Van Buren

This war began when the White man crossed the Atlantic Ocean in search of independence. They left Europe and slowly began fighting for a better life which eventually led to their break away from the harsh brutalities of the British government. When, in all reality, their search for independence led to the abolishment of the freedom of the Native Americans. Instead of placing light onto this subject, it is swept under the rug in schools across America today. I believe that the way the American government chose to gain territory was selfish and ignorant and led to the loss of many cultures and precious lives. Some of the ways this happened was by the removal of rights, battles, untruthful treaties, and confiscation of land. In many ways American history books and movies portray Christopher Columbus, Andrew Jackson, and President Van Buren to be American heroes, but these so-called â€Å"heroes† are actually murderers, thieves, and liars. Jackson and Van Buren believed tha t the Indians needed to become civilized and convert to Christianity, yet the actions these two presidents practiced were opposite of what the religion boasts. Obviously, they were the ones who needed to become civilized and remember where they came from and that what they were taking away from the Indians is exactly what they had fought for. Whenever Jackson was elected president, he implemented laws that â€Å"did away with the tribe as a legal unit† and made them â€Å"subject to militia duty and state taxes,†Show MoreRelatedPros And Cons Of Gambling1282 Words   |  6 Pagesspent. In 1987, the US Supreme Court decided that Native Americans could operate gambling free from government restriction. There are casinos on Indian reservations in 31 states. Games of chance were a popular pastime of the Native Americans. Christopher Columbus and his crew even brought cards and dice with them on their ships. The early colonists continued the trend of gambling with betting on wrestling matches, target shooting, and dog and rat fights. Another way of gambling called riverboat gamblingRead MoreThe Legacy Of The Native Americans906 Words   |  4 Pageswritten by the winners of the bloody, and merciless battles that shaped our country. The hate that has slaughtered thousands of people, is also the hate that has made our country the beautiful tragedy it is today. We all know the history of how Christopher Columbus came to the native land, named the people here indians because he thought he was in the Indi mountains and brought disease and colonists to the land to make it p art of spain. What is usually left out of our history is just how brutal livingRead MoreThe Tragic Decimation Of Native American Lives1320 Words   |  6 PagesAmericas, slavery, European military superiority, fighting between tribes, and simple lack of unification, the Natives started at a severe disadvantage. While they won some battles, they very clearly lost the war of self-preservation. In 1492 Christopher Columbus sailed west from Spain and six weeks later landed on an island in the Bahamas. One of his first actions was to enslave and remove several of the natives. This was just the beginning. By 1515, he had nearly wiped out the West Indies completelyRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagesin Memphis in 1998. c. The Republican Party began back in the 1850s as a U.S. political party. Abraham Lincoln was their first candidate to win the presidency. d. I don’t believe you when you say Martin Luther King Jr. could have been elected president if he hadn’t been assassinated. Try to discipline yourself to read and answer these sample exercises before looking up the correct answer in the footnote below, and before reading on. You do not need to write out the answer. The exercises areRead MoreStrategic Human Resource Management View.Pdf Uploaded Successfully133347 Words   |  534 PagesEmployability security comes from the chance to accumulate human capital— skills and reputation—that can be invested in new opportunities as they arise.22 Page 16 STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Section One Bruce Ellig, the former Vice President of Human Resources for Pfizer, has provided another view of the concept of employability and the respective obligations of employers and employees: [I]t is hard to argue against a position that says individuals have a responsibility to be the best

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Marriage and Wife free essay sample

According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary marriage is defined as â€Å"the state of being united to a person of the opposite sex as husband or wife in a consensual and contractual relationship recognized by law. † In the essay â€Å"Of Marriage and Single Life† by Francis Bacon, he talks about how men should act to please women, so they can marry them in the future. Francis Bacon wrote this piece in the early seventeenth century. In the essay â€Å"I Want A Wife† by Judy Syfers, she talks about wives from a husbands’ perspective. Syfers basically describes all the characteristics and personality traits that she thinks men look for in a woman. These two essays have some similarities on how Bacon and Syfers think that marriages should work, however the pieces also have a lot of differences. As stated earlier the piece by Francis Bacon was written long before Syfers was even born, therefore some of the ideas that Bacon believes are much different because of the time period the essay was written in. We will write a custom essay sample on Marriage and Wife or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Francis Bacon talks about the differences between married men and single men. He said that single men make better friends and are generally more fun to be around. However single men are not as loyal and reliable as married men because they have never had to make a commitment like marriage. He also believes that all the money that a man makes should go straight to providing for his wife and children, so they can live in the best environment and household possible. Bacon believes that single men are more charitable, because they do not have a wife and family that they have to provide for. Bacon also makes it clear that if a woman is unhappy with her marriage that it is ultimately her fault because she chose to marry her husband with mutual consent. Judy Syfers’ essay is written from the perspective that she is a man describing what she believes is the perfect wife. However in the first line of her essay Syfers says that she is married and has children. In this essay Syfers is almost mocking men saying that men do nothing to help out in marriages. She said, â€Å"I want a wife who will not bother me with rambling complaints about a wife’s duties. But I want a wife who will listen to me when I feel the need to explain a rather difficult point I have come across in my course of studies. And I want a wife who will type my papers form me when I have written them. † The beginning of this quote says that a wife hould not complain about how much work they have, because the husband’s duties are much more difficult than what the wife did all day. Also it says that women should listen to men about the problems that they are having, but it does not say anything about the women responding and helping them through their problems. It also says that a wife should type the husband’s papers for him after he has written them; however t hat is just trying to say that men are too lazy to do task that they are more than capable of doing themselves. This article is very biased to women because it was written by a woman. Judy Syfers is basically saying that men do little to nothing in marriages, and the women do everything to take care of their husbands. It is easy to tell that this essay is much more modern than the other essay because toward the end of it Syfers says, â€Å"If, by chance, I find another person more suitable as a wife than the wife I already have, I want the liberty to replace my present wife with another one. † The ideas of divorces are very recent, and have only been around since the mid nineteen hundreds. Basically one of these essays is written from the women’s perspective and the other is written from a man’s perspective. However the one from the women’s perspective was written as if she was a man in search of the perfect wife. Also the essay written by Judy Syfers is about four hundred years more recent than Francis Bacon’s essay. It is easy to spot the time difference as well because Syfers talks about getting divorced and typing papers, while the essay written by Francis Bacon talks about how a man should treat his wife. However most of the ideas inside the marriage are very similar, such as how the couples should behave and interact, and their beliefs on children are similar as well. That is how these essays about marriage are similar and different.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Reasons for surfing the internet

The term ‘surfing the internet’ was invented because of people’s behavior of randomly roaming from one website to another. Internet surfing essentially involves causal clicking of different web links one after the other in search of similar or related information. As such, it is important to note that internet surfing was only possible after the invention of the World Wide Web.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Reasons for surfing the internet specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Given the vast information that is currently available on the internet, most people especially the young adults have found themselves being addicted to internet surfing. However, it should be noted people surf the internet reasons. This paper is therefore an in-depth analysis of the various reasons that make people surf the internet. Since the invention of the internet, it is agreeable that it is one of the most important i nnovations to be made by man. This is because of the many benefits it has proved to have to people of all generations. The list of things that can be done on the internet is endless. First of all, the young adults most of who comprise of students normally surf the internet for educational information, corresponding via electronic mails, chatting with their distant friends and downloading music and applications among other uses (Himanshu 1). Through surfing the internet, the young adults/ students have been able to share information with their colleagues by creating their own websites that show their interests. Internet surfing has also made it possible for people to share memories via videos and pictures. Students have also had the privilege of attending online classes through internet surfing without having to physically move from their homes. This has had the benefit of helping students overcome geographical boundaries and be able to study at educational institutions of their choi ce. The other reason that the young adults and students surf the internet is to reconnect with their old and current friends through social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace just to mention a few (Himanshu 1). The adults surf the internet for various reasons, which include online shopping instead of having to literally move from one shopping mall to another. This way, they manage to save much time that could be utilized in other important matters. The internet has also made it possible for people to make online payments for instance, using PayPal. This has made it easy for people to carry out transactions faster, without delay of payments as witnessed in most of the cheque system. Surfing the internet also helps in giving information regarding places that people would like to visit for holidays.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Travellers are able to gather information re garding different places and have the option to choosing the best without having to waste time and money travelling to the physical places. In addition to this, children also surf the internet or games, which they play online during holidays. People at work can also surf the internet for games and other leisure materials as they take a break from the busy schedule. In fact, a study conducted in 2009, indicated that surfing the internet by workers increases their productivity (Cheng 1). From the aforementioned reasons of surfing the internet, it can be clearly depicted that internet surfing has been of significant help to the lives of almost people in the society regardless of age. The only problem that could arise due to internet surfing is internet addiction that could compromise the roles and obligations of an individual such as studying for the students, working for the employees and even feeding for the young children. As such, it is important that internet surfing is done with limitations to avoid chances of being addicted. Works Cited Cheng, Jacqui. Study: surfing the internet at work boosts productivity. 2009. Web. https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2009/04/study-surfing-the-internet-at-work-boosts-productivity/ Himanshu, Sheth. 10 reasons why people use internet. 2011. Web. http://www.blogtechnika.com/10-reasons-why-people-use-internet/ This essay on Reasons for surfing the internet was written and submitted by user Finley Russo to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Haitis Slave Rebellion Prompted the Louisiana Purchase

Haitis Slave Rebellion Prompted the Louisiana Purchase A slave rebellion in Haiti helped the United States double in size at the beginning of the 19th century. The uprising in what was a French colony at the time had an unexpected repercussion when the leaders of France decided to abandon plans for an empire in the Americas. With Frances profound change of plans, the French decided to sell an enormous parcel of land, the Louisiana Purchase, to the United States in 1803.   Haitis Slave Rebellion In the 1790s the nation of Haiti was known as Saint Domingue, and it was a colony of France. Producing coffee, sugar, and indigo, Saint Domingue was a very profitable colony, but at considerable cost in human suffering. The majority of people in the colony were slaves brought from Africa, and many of them were literally worked to death within years of arriving in the Carribean. A slave rebellion, which broke out in 1791, gained momentum and was largely successful. In the mid-1790s the British, who were at war with France, invaded and seized the colony, and an army of former slaves eventually drove out the British. The leader of the former slaves, Toussaint lOuverture, established relations with the United States and Britain, and Saint Domingue was essentially an independent nation. The French Sought to Reclaim Saint Domingue The French, in time, chose to reclaim their colony, and Napoleon Bonaparte dispatched a military expedition of 20,000 men to Saint Domingue. Toussaint lOuverture was taken prisoner and jailed in France, where he died. The French invasion ultimately failed. Military defeats and an outbreak of yellow fever doomed Frances attempts to retake the colony. The new leader of the slave revolt, Jean Jacque Dessalines, declared Saint Domingue to be an independent nation on January 1, 1804. The nations new name was Haiti, in honor of a native tribe. Thomas Jefferson Had Wanted to Buy the City of New Orleans While the French were in the process of losing their grip on Saint Domingue, President Thomas Jefferson was trying to purchase the city of New Orleans from the French, who claimed much of the land west of the Mississippi River. Napoleon Bonaparte had been interested in Jeffersons offer to purchase the seaport at the mouth of the Mississippi. But the loss of the Frances most profitable colony made Napoleons government begin to think it wasnt worth holding on to the vast tract of land that is now the American Midwest. When Frances finance minister suggested that Napoleon should offer to sell Jefferson all the French holdings west of the Mississippi, the emperor agreed. And so Thomas Jefferson, who had been interested in buying a city, was offered the chance to buy enough land that the United States would instantly double in size. Jefferson made all the necessary arrangements, got approval from Congress, and in 1803 the United States bought the Louisiana Purchase. The actual transfer took place on December 20, 1803. The French had other reasons to sell the Louisiana Purchase besides their loss of Saint Domingue. One major concern was that the British, invading from Canada, could eventually seize all the territory anyway. But it is fair to say that France would not have been prompted to sell the land to the United States when they did had they not lost their prized colony of Saint Domingue. The Louisiana Purchase, of course, contributed enormously to the westward expansion of the United States and the era of Manifest Destiny. Haitis Chronic Poverty Is Rooted in the 19th Century Incidentally, the French, in the 1820s, did try once again to take back Haiti. France did not reclaim the colony, but it did force the small nation of Haiti to pay reparations for land which French citizens had forfeited during the rebellion. Those payments, with interest added, crippled the Haitian economy throughout the 19th century, meaning that Haiti was never able to develop as a nation. To this day Haiti is the most impoverished nation in the Western Hemisphere, and the countrys very troubled financial history is rooted in the payments it was making to France going back to the 19th century.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

10 Easy Ways for Students to Raise Their FICO Score

10 Easy Ways for Students to Raise Their FICO Score Why Students Need a Good FICO Score A FICO score is a type of credit score that is calculated with software from Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO).  Having a good FICO score is very important if you want to get approved for fair interest rates on private student loans, credit cards, and other sources of credit. FICO scores cant be improved overnight, but there are  10 easy steps that students can take to raise their FICO score Step 1: Establish New Accounts If you want to establish credit or raise your FICO score, you can get a credit card in your name and use it responsibly. This means charging regularly and paying the balances off regularly as well. If possible, get a card with a high limit and always keep the card balance below 25 percent. Step 2: Piggyback on Another Account If a parent or some other responsible individual is willing to add your name to their credit card account, it might help your credit and boost your FICO score. Every time this person charges and makes payments on the account it will look good for you. Read more about the legality of piggybacking. Step 3: Get Secured Debt If you are having difficulty getting approved for a regular credit card, try getting a secured credit card. These cards are perfect for those who have poor credit because they allow you to make charges that can be covered by money you have already applied to an account. There is no way for you to overcharge or miss payments. Eventually, use of the card will increase your FICO score. Step 4: Dont Apply for Too Much Credit If you have a flurry of credit inquiries on your credit history because you applied for 10 different credit cards and 5 different loans in a three-month period, it can lower your FICO score. If you can, try to limit yourself to two inquires each year. Step 5: Increase Your Current Card Limits The lower your balances are on your credit cards in comparison to the limit of your credit cards, the better your credit report will look and the higher your FICO score will be. If getting the balances paid down is proving to be a problem, or even if its not, contact your creditors and ask for a higher limit. Step 6: Pay Off Old Accounts If you have old, unpaid debts on your credit report, it can really drag your FICO score down. One of the best ways to undo the damage that has been done is to pay off old accounts and make arrangements with the creditors to have the judgments removed. Step 7: Dont Close Old Accounts Even if they are unused, old credit  accounts attribute to your length of credit history and affect your score. The longer you have an account, the better it looks. Closing old accounts can lower your FICO score even further. Step 8: Always Pay Bills On Time Not paying your bills on time is a sure-fire way to lower your FICO score. Each late payment can lower your score by as much as 20 points. In contrast, paying your bills on time consistently can raise your FICO score. Step 9: Lower Your Debt Having a significant amount of outstanding debt, such as student loans, cars loans, and other types of installment loans, can lower your debt-to-income ratio and in turn, your FICO score. If you can lower your debt; your FICO score will begin to rise at a fast pace. Step 10: Get Help If you are having a hard time managing your credit and raising your FICO score to an acceptable level, consider getting professional help through a low-cost or no-cost credit counseling service.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of International Economic Institutions Research Paper

Advantages and Disadvantages of International Economic Institutions - Research Paper Example This research will begin with the statement that global economic institutions aim to understand the dilemmas and opportunities faced by several economies of the world. Through their formal chain of command system and global applicability, these institutions facilitate economic actions that are aimed to achieve progress and development. Some of the key institutions in the world are WTO, IMF and World Bank  (Mole) There are many economic institutions in the world. According to EDIRC there are currently 12,542 institutions in 231 countries and territories mentioned. Many of these economic institutions came into existence after the world war. They were basically founded to promote economic cooperation between countries and help in the recovery of world economy from a downturn. The present World trade Organization (WTO) was General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade before 1995. According to the official website of WTO it has 153 members and is located in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aims inclu de removing barriers to international trade, keeping an eye on global economic policy, providing a platform for negotiating and resolving conflicts, reviewing the national trade policies, helping developing countries by providing loans and finally conducting economic research. Now let’s shift focus from WTO to the famous international Monetary Fund (IMF) which was also created after World War 2 in the year 1946. According to the official website of IMF It has 185 members and is located in Washington DC.... The new global body would make sure that exchange rates remained stable and it gave confidence to its member countries to finish exchange limitations that prevented trade. The World Bank is another instance of an institution that was made to act as a global connector of knowledge, learning and modernization for poverty elimination. It links together practitioners and institutions to assist them in locating suitable answers to their development challenges. With an emphasis on the "how" of modification WB connects knowledge from around the world and causes modernization to rise. The WB’s aim is to be enable connection of knowledge, learning and innovation for poverty reduction. Practitioners and institutions are connected to facilitate suitable solution to developmental challenges. The focus is on how to reform, and the methodology involves linking up knowledge from around the world and scaling innovation. WBI’s dream is to encourage change negotiators and provide them wi th suitable instruments enable development. The WBI has always sought to invest in a row of nontechnical methods that match technical answers to development problems. WBI’s part is to act as a booster for development. By enabling universal reach of innovative technology, they are making instruments, approaches, and online platforms to help in opening and working together on the development process between governments and nations.WBI assists in partnerships and information sharing between policy makers and practitioners. It has made a devoted team that has its centre of attention on South-to-South performer exchanges and participates in a joint venture and outreach function in increasing the eminence of SSKE through

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Computers Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Computers - Research Paper Example This further took a new dimension when the web 2.0 was introduced with offers like social networking sites, blogs, and other similar features which made it more interesting and hard to resist and avoid. The intensity of the usage and its presence in our daily life can be imagined by the fact that just a single website has as many as eighty million members on it. With time the progress made by computers was so enormous that they crept into different disciplines of life and today they are part of every mobile phone, every television set, every refrigerator and every screen that is out on the road and in the sports gymnasiums. Mid 80s: While the first twenty years were slow in progress with regard to computer’s development. The dominant force in those times was I.B.M and computers were quite large in size. The changes came in, in time when the black and white and colorless scheme was replaced by the colored screens. The command line interface (C.L.I) was replaced by Graphic User Interface (G.U.I) and it brought more interest in to it(Kumar, 51). Apple Computer Inc. (now Apple Inc) was the pioneer in this regard and introduced resulted in more interest attraction from the customers (O'Grady, 32). The next step in the overall journey was the reduction of sizes of computers. While at first the computers were not able to be handled by single user and mainframe computers were quite common which were only limited to organizational usage, they were soon replaced by the personal computers which resulted in one computer per home and one computer per room. However even this was to change and the change came in form of the monitors and display screens. The cathode ray tubes (C.R.T) were replaced by L.C.D (Liquid Crystal Displays) which... Moore rightly predicted change and increase in the number of computer electronic devices every eighteen to twenty months (Shuman, 10). Where we stand today can be the ground breaking foundation for what is to come ahead. What we consider mammoth in terms of the progress made by computers might well be the stepping stone towards more advanced technologies and with the progress so far made, it is promised to bring further revolution and change in the manner in which computers are being handled. The terabyte space which might seem large enough today might not be even sufficient to accommodate the requirements of future single hard disk drive. They have created a total new world of digital existence with lots of jobs on offer and many other activities which would not be possible otherwise. It is the true gift of 20th century that is bound to stay here for times to come.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Advertising Objectives Essay Example for Free

Advertising Objectives Essay Furthermore, Budweiser’s mission is to pursue a long-term growth strategy by pursuing high consumption markets and attaining a firm market share among competitors. Budweiser has a strong brand name domestically, but for this particular region it will need to implement a penetration strategy. Also, Budweiser will focus on securing valuable distribution channels including pubs and supermarkets. The product positioning strategy reflects competitive pricing and product differentiation. Inherently, the product reflects cultural values of the target country, with attributes such as caffeine and local flavors that represent regional preferences. The brand may potentially increase market share via acquisition of equity investment. Tactical Details Product Various product attributes will be localized to appeal to consumer tastes such as a diet/lighter version beer with caffeine. Offering smaller glass bottles, which align with European consumption volume trends, will differentiate product packaging. The beer base content will be standardized but with local flavors based on market research. Also, based on potential research findings there is a possible product extension for an â€Å"all-natural† beer within the Austrian market. Additionally, products will be available in mini kegs to support the younger market segment behavioral characteristics. Advertising Implementing TV, Radio, Direct mail, Print ads, and Internet will be necessary to keep up with competitive advertising within this region. Messaging will focus on initially creating awareness. Ultimately, message strategies will portray a global brand through localized messaging. Internet advertising will be highly influential for the demographic market segment. Advertising will include viral ads, flash advertisements, and promotional incentives and incorporate sites such as MySpace and blogs (for the younger generation). Furthermore, sponsorship from popular celebrities or musicians for events and products will appeal to the target market. Personal Selling Face to face education via account executives with clubs/pubs will be imperitive to create awareness and motivate front-line distributors. Additionally, face-to-face points of contact in grocery stores and super/hypermarkets will be important in order to impact this a vast portion of purchases. These tasks will be contracted out to a local sales force that understands the culture, industry and competitive environment. Routine follow-ups and frequent interactions will be emphasized in order to maintain strong distributor relationships. Sales Promotion Incentives will be offered to club owners, super markets and so forth that will be based on volume discounts. A sales contest will also be commenced across the club/pub segment and the supermarket segment to increase purchases, emphasize product push through distribution channels and create awareness for caffeinated beer. Sub-brand specific websites will offer promotional incentives as well (BOGO, etc). Sleek, appealing point of purchase displays will be exhibited in supermarkets. Promotional partnerships with record a company, such as free iTunes downloads with purchase will be implemented to appeal to youthful market. Distribution Distribution will primarily focus on clubs/pubs, closely following the Red Bull distribution model and its flourishing success within this region. Distribution will also be emphasized in super and hypermarkets. Price Policy Pricing will remain competitive, but not premium. Also, based on market research, pricing will reflect that of energy drinks. Product differentiation and promotional efforts will not focus on price, but instead aim to increase purchasing through incentives such as volume discounts. Research A partnership with an experienced European market research agency (i. e. EURO, RSCG) will be imperative to monitoring quality perception and target market acceptance. Research will closely examine brand recognition development over time. Data mining from distributors to track trends will also be influential in understanding consumption behaviors. Research will also be needed in evaluating the possibility of launching a more mainstream bud beer. Finally, based upon success within Austria, further research into surrounding countries will be necessary.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

A Panel Analysis of Venture Capital’s Impact on Innovation Performance in Europe :: European Economy, Debt Crisis

The sovereign debt crisis hits heavily European economy. Policymakers are desperately searching for solutions. But resolving the crisis would be much harder if the economies continue to stall or shrink. The key driver for modern economic growth is entrepreneurial innovation (Schumpeter, 1911, 1934; Romer, 1990; Grossman and Helpman, 2002; and Aghion and Howitt, 1992, 1998). Innovation requires constant investments in entrepreneurial firms. Entrepreneurial financing, however, is too risky and too costly for traditional prudent investors. Financial problems are particularly acute in high-growth entrepreneurial firms due to their inherent uncertainty (Hall, 2002). The Community Innovation Survey (2002) reports that the lack of appropriate sources of finance and the high costs of innovation are the most cited hampering factors in European companies. The financial constrains force almost one out of three innovative or potentially innovative Dutch firms to abandon or to slow down their inn ovative projects (Mohnen, Palm, van Der Loeff, and Tiwart, 2008). Savignac (2006) also finds that 17.25 percent of innovative firms are financially constrained in France. The Venture Capital (VC) market provides the unique link between financial surplus and innovation, and mitigates the problem of under-investment in innovative activities by small and new firms (Hall, 2002). The structure of VC firms seems to be designed specifically to light fires under scrappy and ambitions startups, to materialize new business ideas and to maximize return on investment in true innovation projects (Stuck and Weingarten, 2005). There are both ad hoc and academic evidence suggesting that VC boosts American innovation, for example, NVCA (2010), Hellmann and Puri (2000), Kortum and Lerner (2001), and Ueda and Hirukawa (2003). The empirical finding in Europe, however, is not unanimous. On the one hand, Tykvova (2000) finds that VC investments have a highly significant positive effect on patenting activity in Germany. Engel and Keilbach (2002) reveal that the average number of patents in the German VC-backed group is weakly higher than in the control group. Bertoni et al. (2009) report that VC investments promote Italian firms’ patenting activity. And Colombo et al. (2009a) find that VC investments have a positive impact on the productivity of 222 Italian firms operating in high-tech manufacturing and services. On the other hand, Peneder (2010) finds that the Austrian VCs have a positive impact on firm growth, yet not on innovation output. Pinch and Sunley (2009) find that there is little evidence that th e British VCs promote the innovation performance of their investees.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Antigone Right V. Right Essay

A famous German philosopher named Hegel claimed, â€Å"At the heart of the Greek tragedy is the spectacle of right vs. right.† The central idea of the tragedies was not about who was right and wrong, because those two would be effortless to separate from each other, but on who was considered the most right, which would many times be difficult to tell apart. Throughout the tragic play, Antigone, written by the ancient Greek playwright, Sophocles, Antigone was proven to be the most right. This can be verified since Antigone decided to follow the gods’ law over Creon’s law, and the punishment that she received from Creon was far too unreasonable. Antigone does what is ethical by pursuing what would be right in accordance to the gods, not in accordance to Creon. Creon believed that Polyneices did not deserve to be buried. Before Antigone is sent to dies, she tells Creon, â€Å"You will remember / What things I suffer, and at what’s men’s hands / Because I would not transgress the laws of heaven† (4.78-80). When it comes to order of importance, the gods should be more valued, because they always will know what is right for the people. Those who follow the gods’ rules more often will most likely make the better decision. As Aristotle once said, â€Å"†¦human reason is the most godlike part of human nature, a life guided by human reason is superior to any other.† Eventually, even Creon himself comes to the realization that he was wrong when he says, â€Å"The laws of the gods are mighty, and a man must serve them / To the last day of his life!† (5.108-109) The gods are a powerful force, and if more people are meant to follow them. Honoring the gods is something significant, especially during ancient Greece. Even though Antigone did make the decision of breaking Creon’s laws, her punishment was not at all fair. Even if one were to say that Antigone did the wrong thing, it is hard to argue that the penalty should not have been as brutal. When discussing this situation with his father, Haemon informs Creon of his thoughts, â€Å"They say no woman has ever, so unreasonably / Dies so shameful a death for a generous act† (3.63-64). Antigone wanted to do what was best for Polyneices, to make sure that his death will be as much of an honor as the one of his own brother. And for doing for what she, as well as many other citizens, thought was the most proper thing to do, she was unfairly sentenced to death. Antigone, also before leaving for her punishment, speaks of Creon, â€Å"But if the guilt / Lies upon Creon who judged me, then I pray / May his punishment equal my own† (4.68-70). She knows that she made the most moral decision, so the real punishment will eventually go who have misjudged her, Creon in this case. This did come true, when Creon’s life when turned into a catastrophe when his son and wife, Haemon and Eurydice, both committed suicide after admitting that they could not possibly live with someone who was so cruel to someone who was innocent. It was a law unreasonable, so it deserved to have been broken. While it is true that anarchy comes from many citizens deciding to rebel against the law, the law that Antigone broke was worthy of breaking. Creon tried to reason his punishment by saying, â€Å"If I permit my own family to rebel / How shall I earn the world’s obedience?† (3.30-31) It is true that Creon and his family should abide to the laws in order to set an example for his state, but not a law as unjust as that one. There should be exceptions to certain laws, if there is proof that it was the most ethical choice. He also tried to make this decision seem rational by stating, â€Å"Of all the people in this city, only she / Has had contempt for my was and broken it† (3.24-25). Actually, Creon is incorrect with making this statement. Many citizens have said that they don’t believe in Creon’s decision, but are too afraid of being punished if they choose to stand up for Antigone. Considering the fact that Creon is meant to be a representation of the people he is leading, he should not have been so ignorant to everyone else, and let Antigone free. In this battle of right vs. right, Antigone was shown to be the most justified. All in all, Antigone had made the most reasonable choices, in comparison to Creon. Not only had she chose the gods over Creon, she also suffered an undeserved punishment. Nowadays, we come across sever right vs. right situations, and sometimes it is hard to tell what the better decision is. Learning to separate these from early on will help others make the best choice when problems become more difficult. Human nature has a harder time making the distinction, so it is important to realize the difference when we have problems that require this amount of thought.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Sunday in the Park

In the short story, â€Å"Sunday in the Park† by Bel Kaufman, a mother and father are relaxing at a park on a Sunday afternoon with their child, Larry, who is playing in the sandbox. Everything was seemly peaceful until another child playing in the sandbox throws sand at Larry. Larry’s mother tells the other child not to throw sand and to her surprise the child’s father encourages him to continue throwing sand. The mother was rendered speechless by the father of the child’s lack of empathy, and so the father of Larry, Morton, decides to step in.When Morton tries to reason with the other father, he goes threatened with â€Å"’You and who else? ’â€Å"(Kaufman 1) Feeling intimidated, Morton decides to retreat with his family. The mother criticizes Morton for being weak and not being able to stand up for the family and his son. Enraged and embarrassed the father complains about the mother’s way of disciplining the child and tries to tak e it upon himself to properly discipline his son. The mother not wanting him to scold or discipline their son in anyway, threatens him with the same threat that the father of the other child said.Throughout this short story, the tone of the story changes a couple of time. â€Å"Sunday in the Park† starts with a very cheerful, calming moment when the family is relaxing at the park. When sand is thrown at Larry, the story becomes very tense. The jumpiest moment of the short story was when the other father and Morton â€Å"looked at each other nakedly†. This was when Morton has to decide whether he was going to fight or flight. Ultimately he chose flight, and retreated with his family. When the family is retreating the tone of the short story, turns accusatory and shameful.The mother and Morton start to argue as of result, and they try to put the blame on each other. â€Å"Sunday in the Park† ends very suddenly and in a shocking matter. The mother says to Morton, à ¢â‚¬Å"You and who else? † (Kaufman 4). This line is significant because the other father said the same thing to Morton to scare him off. â€Å"Sunday in the Park† is a short story that has a lot of imagery and symbolism that is caused by the author great description of characters and settings: â€Å"The swing and seesaws stood motionless and abandoned, the slides were empty, and only in the sandbox two little squatted diligently side by side† (Kaufman 1).The quote here proves his the amount of description the author puts into the story. From this one sentence I can get a vivid image of how this scene looks like. The reason why imagery about the setting is really strong in this short story is because, there only is one setting in â€Å"Sunday in the Park. † Kaufman really wants the viewers to understand the environment the characters are in. The author chooses to put a lot of imagery because it will help the reader feel more connected to the story and see t he images the author is trying to convey.The most prominent theme that one would think is present in â€Å"Sunday in the Park† would be the idea of standing up for what you believe in. The mother in this story stands up for her own beliefs despite being up against a really menacing person, but when she is unable to do so, her husband Morton, steps in attempts to back his wife up. This relates to the other theme that is present in â€Å"Sunday in the Park† which I personally think is more important. This short story reverses the stereotypical gender roles, where the men are supposed to be the protectors of the family.However this is contradictory because Morton was ultimately unable to stand up to the other father, and had his family retreat. Kaufman illustrated the Morton was weak, and timid, which are not qualities of how a protector should be. Culturally, women would ask the men for help when they need it. For example when the other father was rude to the mother â₠¬Å"she glanced at Morton† (Kaufman 2) for help because he was the man of the family. In addition, when the mother of Larry was trying to find the parents of the other child, she almost automatically looks for the mother of the other child first.Universally, it is more likely for a woman to stay home and take care of the children than the men. After failing to find the mother of the other children, Larry’s mother immediately scans the park for females, she notices â€Å"two women, and a little girl on roller skates [and then notices the] man on a bench a few feet away. † (Kaufman 1) Today, people associate parenthood with a female, very rarely are men mentioned when speaking about parenting. Sunday in the Park In the short story, â€Å"Sunday in the Park† by Bel Kaufman, a mother and father are relaxing at a park on a Sunday afternoon with their child, Larry, who is playing in the sandbox. Everything was seemly peaceful until another child playing in the sandbox throws sand at Larry. Larry’s mother tells the other child not to throw sand and to her surprise the child’s father encourages him to continue throwing sand. The mother was rendered speechless by the father of the child’s lack of empathy, and so the father of Larry, Morton, decides to step in.When Morton tries to reason with the other father, he goes threatened with â€Å"’You and who else? ’â€Å"(Kaufman 1) Feeling intimidated, Morton decides to retreat with his family. The mother criticizes Morton for being weak and not being able to stand up for the family and his son. Enraged and embarrassed the father complains about the mother’s way of disciplining the child and tries to tak e it upon himself to properly discipline his son. The mother not wanting him to scold or discipline their son in anyway, threatens him with the same threat that the father of the other child said.Throughout this short story, the tone of the story changes a couple of time. â€Å"Sunday in the Park† starts with a very cheerful, calming moment when the family is relaxing at the park. When sand is thrown at Larry, the story becomes very tense. The jumpiest moment of the short story was when the other father and Morton â€Å"looked at each other nakedly†. This was when Morton has to decide whether he was going to fight or flight. Ultimately he chose flight, and retreated with his family. When the family is retreating the tone of the short story, turns accusatory and shameful.The mother and Morton start to argue as of result, and they try to put the blame on each other. â€Å"Sunday in the Park† ends very suddenly and in a shocking matter. The mother says to Morton, à ¢â‚¬Å"You and who else? † (Kaufman 4). This line is significant because the other father said the same thing to Morton to scare him off. â€Å"Sunday in the Park† is a short story that has a lot of imagery and symbolism that is caused by the author great description of characters and settings: â€Å"The swing and seesaws stood motionless and abandoned, the slides were empty, and only in the sandbox two little squatted diligently side by side† (Kaufman 1).The quote here proves his the amount of description the author puts into the story. From this one sentence I can get a vivid image of how this scene looks like. The reason why imagery about the setting is really strong in this short story is because, there only is one setting in â€Å"Sunday in the Park. † Kaufman really wants the viewers to understand the environment the characters are in. The author chooses to put a lot of imagery because it will help the reader feel more connected to the story and see t he images the author is trying to convey.The most prominent theme that one would think is present in â€Å"Sunday in the Park† would be the idea of standing up for what you believe in. The mother in this story stands up for her own beliefs despite being up against a really menacing person, but when she is unable to do so, her husband Morton, steps in attempts to back his wife up. This relates to the other theme that is present in â€Å"Sunday in the Park† which I personally think is more important. This short story reverses the stereotypical gender roles, where the men are supposed to be the protectors of the family.However this is contradictory because Morton was ultimately unable to stand up to the other father, and had his family retreat. Kaufman illustrated the Morton was weak, and timid, which are not qualities of how a protector should be. Culturally, women would ask the men for help when they need it. For example when the other father was rude to the mother â₠¬Å"she glanced at Morton† (Kaufman 2) for help because he was the man of the family. In addition, when the mother of Larry was trying to find the parents of the other child, she almost automatically looks for the mother of the other child first.Universally, it is more likely for a woman to stay home and take care of the children than the men. After failing to find the mother of the other children, Larry’s mother immediately scans the park for females, she notices â€Å"two women, and a little girl on roller skates [and then notices the] man on a bench a few feet away. † (Kaufman 1) Today, people associate parenthood with a female, very rarely are men mentioned when speaking about parenting.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Impacts generated by Tourism Essay

Impacts generated by Tourism Essay Impacts generated by Tourism Essay Vellas and Becherel (1995) describe international tourism as, â€Å"undeniably one of the most influential phenomena in the economic and social development of our society†. In this essay the range of impacts generated by tourism will be discussed. The main focus will be on the impacts of tourism, but shall also refer to tourism activities, stakeholders and specific destinations. It will identify how the issue of sustainability involves tourism processes and applies to the stakeholders involved in the creation and delivery of tourism product. In Britain and all over the world the evolution of tourism has changed dramatically since the ancient world. Tourism is not a new thing but what people do in their leisure time has widely changed. In Classical times, with Greece developing the Olympics and Rome introducing Spas and Baths shows elements that people visit where experience and attraction existed (Page, 2009.) The middle ages was known for being dark and process declining but also included pilgrims to visit the Holy Land. The Renaissance continued with festivals and fairs and saw a rise in travelling theatres. It was also in this time the activities of diverse social groups emerged. The Grand Tour were key destinations wealthy people visited and tourism reached a high point in the 18th century. This was advanced by the developments in transport and the coming of the train in different areas (Scranton and Davidson, 2007). The coastal areas became popular as a new form of tourism, but created a social differentiation in Britain, with the working and middle class visiting separate areas. This time also seen organised tourism emerge with railway and overseas tours and the first tours to America. The creation of bank holidays encouraged retreats and leisure activities. The development of roads, train also helped tourism develop throughout this time (Page, 2009). The inter-war years saw a rise in travelling overseas and a higher use in passenger liners. Railwa y lines developed further and hotels and hostels were getting promoted and more widely used. Air travel in this time also grew. Mass tourism became possible and since the sixties world tourism was an opportunity for many people (Page, 2009). Bus and Coach travel grew considerably in the 1930s and is still a popular method to use, as is usually a cheaper way to travel and more environmentally friendly. Airlines became established and is such a popular method to be used, for long and short haul flights. Transport is now cheap and reliable and the development of the internet means language barriers are not as much as a problem and it is easier to book are find out about any place in the world. Impacts are a very important component of tourism, especially in relation to the host location. Tourism impacts greatly on local and major economies, with both costs and benefits. The income can be a benefit as Page, et al (2001) express how tourism can increase the total economic status of a country. The industry can lead to a rise in Gross National Product (GDP), which shows the standard of living in a country. Factors such as revenue and the multiplier effects from tourism, tourism-connected employment, backward linkages to other sectors, percentage of all tourism associated imports, level of profit repatriation and the position in the product life cycle if together the money stimulated is used in the local economy, can develop the destination (Pender and Sharpley, 2005). Employment is also one of the benefits, with direct, indirect and induced types of employment generated by tourism. Direct employment is jobs in which are now available due to visitor expenditure and directly sup porting tourism action. Indirect work is jobs produced from within the tourism supply while induced jobs are created as a result from tourist spending as local people spend money received from tourism (Page, et al. 2001). The jobs could not only lower employment rates in the local area but bring in more

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Case of Convicted Killer Jeffrey MacDonald

The Case of Convicted Killer Jeffrey MacDonald On February 17, 1970, a horrific crime took place in the Fort Bragg, North Carolina army base home of U.S. Army surgeon Captain Jeffrey MacDonald. The doctor claimed strangers had broken in, attacked him, and slaughtered his pregnant wife and their two young daughters in a manner that eerily resembled the recent Tate-LaBianca murders carried out by the Manson Family in California. Army investigators didnt buy his story. MacDonald was charged with the murders but later released. Though the case was dismissed, it was far from over. In 1974, a grand jury was convened. MacDonald, now a civilian, was indicted for murder the following year. In 1979, he was tried, found guilty, and sentenced to three consecutive life sentences. Even in the face of conviction, MacDonald has staunchly maintained his innocence and launched numerous appeals. Many people believe him; others do not, including Fatal Vision author Joe McGinnis, who was engaged by MacDonald to write a book exonerating him- but got one condemning him instead. Jeffrey and Colette MacDonalds Bright Beginnings Jeffrey MacDonald and Colette Stevenson grew up in Patchogue, New York. Theyd known one another since grade school. They began dating in high school and the relationship continued during their college years. Jeffrey was at Princeton and Colette attended Skidmore. Just two years into college, in the fall of 1963, the couple decided to marry. By April 1964, their first child Kimberly was born. Colette put her education on hold to become a full-time mother while Jeffrey continued his studies. After Princeton, MacDonald attended Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago. While there, the couples second child Kristen Jean was born in May 1967. Times were tough financially for the young family but the future looked bright. After graduating from medical school the following year and completing his internship at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City, MacDonald decided to join the U.S. Army. The family relocated to Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Advancement came quickly for Captain MacDonald, who was soon appointed Group Surgeon to the Special Forces (Green Berets). Colette was enjoying her role as a busy homemaker and mother of two but she had plans to return to college with the eventual goal of becoming a teacher. Over the Christmas holidays in 1969, Colette let friends know that Jeff would not be going to Vietnam as theyd feared he might. For the MacDonalds, life seemed normal and happy. Colette was expecting a third child- a boy- in July but just two months into the new year, Colettes life and those of her children would come to a tragic and terrifying end. A Horrific Crime Scene On February 17, 1970, an emergency call was forwarded from an operator to the military police at Fort Bragg. Captain Jeffrey MacDonald was pleading for help. He begged for someone to send an ambulance to his home. When the MPs got to the MacDonald residence, they found 26-year-old Colette, along with her two children, 5-year-old Kristen and 2-year-old, Kimberly, dead. Lying beside Colette was Captain Jeffrey MacDonald, his arm stretched over his wifes body. MacDonald was wounded but alive. Kenneth Mica, one of the first MPs to arrive on the scene, discovered the bodies of Colette and the two girls. Colette was on her back, her chest partially covered by a torn pajama top. Her face and head had been battered. She was covered in blood. Kimberlys head had been bludgeoned. The child also suffered stab wounds on her neck. Kristen had been stabbed in her chest and back 33 times with a knife and 15 more with an icepick. The word Pig was scrawled in blood on the headboard in the master bedroom. MacDonald appeared to be unconscious. Mica performed mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. When MacDonald came to, he complained of not being able to breathe. Mica says that while MacDonald did request medical attention, he attempted to shove him away, urgently demanding that the MP tend to his children and wife instead. The Woman in the Floppy Hat When Mica questioned MacDonald about what had happened, MacDonald told him that three male intruders accompanied by a hippie-type woman had broken into the home and attacked him and his family. According to MacDonald, a blonde female, wearing a floppy hat, high-heeled boots and holding a candle had chanted, Acid is groovy. Kill the pigs, as the carnage took place. Mica recalled noticing a woman who fit that description while en route to the crime scene. She was standing outside in the rain on a street not far from the MacDonald home. Mica informed a superior at the armys Criminal Investigation Division (CID) about having seen the woman but says his observations were ignored. The CID chose to remain focused on the physical evidence and the statements MacDonald made regarding the crimes to formulate their theory of the case. The First Murder Charges At the hospital, MacDonald was treated for wounds to his head, as well as various cuts and bruises to his shoulders, chest, hand, and fingers. He also sustained several puncture wounds around his heart, including one that punctured his lung, causing it to collapse. MacDonald remained hospitalized for a week, leaving only to attend the funerals of his wife and daughters. MacDonald was released from the hospital on February 25, 1970. On April 6, 1970, MacDonald underwent an extensive interrogation by CID investigators, who concluded that MacDonalds injuries were superficial and self-inflicted. They believed that his story about intruders was a fabrication created as a coverup and that MacDonald himself was responsible for the murders. On May 1, 1970, Captain Jeffrey MacDonald was formally charged by the U.S. Army for the murder of his family. Five months later, however, Colonel Warren Rock, the presiding officer over the Article 32 hearing, recommended that the charges be dropped, citing insufficient evidence to indict. MacDonalds defense civilian defense attorney Bernard L. Segal had argued that the CID botched their jobs at the crime scene, losing or compromising valuable evidence. He also floated a credible theory of alternative suspects, claiming to have found Helena Stoeckley, the woman in the floppy hat, and her boyfriend, a drug-using army veteran named Greg Mitchell, as well as witnesses who claimed Stoeckley had confessed to her involvement in the murders. After a five-month inquisition, MacDonald was released and received an honorable discharge in December. By July  1971 he was in living in Long Beach, California, and working at the St. Mary Medical Center. Colettes Parents Turn Against MacDonald Initially, Colettes mother and stepfather, Mildred and Freddie Kassab, fully supported MacDonald, believing him innocent. Freddie Kassab testified for MacDonald at his Article 32 hearing. But all that changed when they reportedly received a disturbing phone call from MacDonald in November 1970, during which he claimed to have hunted down and killed one of the intruders. While MacDonald explained away the call as an attempt to get an obsessive Freddie Kassab to let go of the investigation, the revenge story made the Kassabs uneasy. Their suspicions were stoked by several media appearances MacDonald made, including one on The Dick Cavett Show in which he showed no signs of grief or outrage over the murders of his family. Instead, MacDonald spoke angrily of the Armys mishandling of the case, going so far as to accuse CID investigators of lying, covering up evidence, and scapegoating him for their bungling. MacDonalds behavior and what they deemed arrogant demeanor led the Kassabs to think that MacDonald might have actually murdered their daughter and grandchildren after all. After reading a full transcript of MacDonalds Article 32 hearing, they were convinced. Believing MacDonald to be guilty, In 1971, Freddie Kassab and CID investigators returned to the crime scene, where they attempted to recreate the events of the killings as described by MacDonald, only to arrive at the conclusion that his account was totally implausible. Concerned that MacDonald was going to get away with murder, in April of 1974 the aging Kassabs filed a citizens complaint against their former son-in-law. In August, a grand jury convened to hear the case in Raleigh, North Carolina. MacDonald waived his rights and appeared as the first witness.  In 1975, MacDonald was indicted on one count of first-degree murder in the death of one of his daughters, and two counts of second-degree murder for the deaths of his wife and second child. While MacDonald awaited trial, he was released on $100,000 bail. During this time, his lawyers appealed to the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals to dismiss the charges on the grounds that his right to a speedy trial had been violated. The decision was overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court in on May 1, 1978, and MacDonald was remanded for trial. The Trial and the Verdict The trial opened on July 16, 1979, in Federal Court in Raleigh, North Carolina with Judge Franklin Dupree presiding (the same judge who’d heard Grand Jury arguments five years before). The prosecution entered into evidence a 1970 Esquire magazine found at the crime scene. The issue featured an article on the Manson family murders, which they argued had given MacDonald the blueprint for his so-called â€Å"hippie† murder scenario. The prosecution also called an FBI lab technician whose testimony regarding physical evidence from the stabbings wholly contradicted the events as described by MacDonald. In Helena Stoeckley’s testimony, she claimed never to have been inside the MacDonald’s home. When the defense attempted to call rebuttal witnesses to refute her assertions, they were denied by Judge Dupree. MacDonald took the stand in his own defense but despite a lack of motive, he was unable to come up with a convincing argument to disprove the prosecution’s theory of the murders. On August 26, 1979, he was convicted of second-degree murder for the deaths of Collette and Kimberly, and first-degree murder of Kristen.   The Appeals On July 29, 1980, a panel of the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned MacDonald’s conviction, again as a violation of his 6th Amendment right to a speedy trial. In August, he was released on $100,000 bail. MacDonald returned to his job as the Head of Emergency Medicine at the Long Beach Medical Center. When the case was heard once again in December, the 4th Circuit upheld their earlier decision but the U.S. government appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Oral arguments in the case took place in December 1981. On March 31, 1982, the Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that MacDonald’s right to a speedy trial had not been violated. He was sent back to prison. Subsequent appeals to the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals and the U.S. Supreme Court have been denied. A 2014 appeal was based on DNA testing of hairs found on Collette’s leg and hands that didn’t match any member of the MacDonald family. It was denied in December of 2018. MacDonald continues to maintain his innocence. He was originally eligible for parole in 1990 but refused to consider it because he says it would have been an admission of guilt. He’s since remarried and is next eligible for parole in May 2020.   Sources The MacDonald Case Website.McGinnis, Joe, FatalVision. New American Library, August 1983Lavois, Denise. â€Å"‘Fatal Vision’ Doctor Denied New Trial in Family Triple Murder.† Associated Press/Army Times. December 21, 2018Balestrieri, Steve. â€Å"Jeffrey MacDonald Stands Trial For His Wife and Daughters Murders in 1979.† Special Operations. July 17, 2018

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Macro & Micro economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Macro & Micro economics - Essay Example The micro and the macro environmental factors influence the market and the marketing decisions. The product of a company considers the differentiation strategies so that the product is accepted by the consumers. Thus, for influencing the market the marketing decisions on the product is important. The price of the product also influences the response of the market towards purchase of the product. This influences the marketing decision for fixing a competitive price. Similarly place and promotion for launch and sell of the product influences the market. The decision on the distribution system of the products enables a smoother access of the products by the consumers. The decision on promotional strategies on the basis of the target customer segment influences the behaviour of the market. Similar to the micro environmental factors, the macro environmental factors like the political scenario influences the operations of the market. Thus marketing decisions should take into consideration the uncertainties of the political factors. Similarly, the other macro environmental factors like the culture of the society, surge in economic conditions, legal constraints influence the market investments. These factors are not under the direct control of the market and hence, the marketing decisions are influenced by the uncertainties associated with the market performance. Segmentation variables to define a market segment The various segmentation variables that need to be considered to define a target market segment are the sizes of the market segments, growth rate of the market segment, suitability of the market segment with respect to the product of the company, access of the market segment by the company and the purchasing power of the market segment. The various market segments are identified based on various features like the demographics, psychographic and the geographic factors. The target size of the market segment is identified based on the suitability of the market seg ment with respect to the product. The growth rate of the market segment is then determined to estimate whether its matches the required growth rate and the future prospects. After determining the suitability of the market segment, the potential access to the market segment is determined by the firm. Finally the purchasing power of the market segment is analyzed to determine whether it matches the price of the product. By considering all these segmentation variables, the target market segment is defined that matches the requirement of the company with respect to the desired features. Different types of pricing strategy The various ways of maximization of profits of the business lies at the cutting of costs, increase in sales and increasing the profits. In a situation where costs are reduced to the limit and it’s difficult to increase the sales of the company, the pricing strategies are adopted in such a scenario. The different pricing strategies are namely, cost plus pricing, market-oriented pricing and penetration pricing. The cost plus pricing method takes into consideration the basic cost of production and then adds a certain percentage to the basic cost to determine the sale price of the pro

Friday, November 1, 2019

The Cold war and realism in International Relations Essay

The Cold war and realism in International Relations - Essay Example Even after the fall of Soviet Union the subject continues to attract much attention of the scholars. The desire to understand the rise and fall of a great power has combined with the urge of better understanding the future course of history. Various scholars have attempted to understand the volatile nature of modern international relations. International Relation theories help a great deal in understanding the historical events and when we talk about Cold War, the theory of realism dominates the other theories towards a better understanding of the facts. The theory has its pros and cons but it hold itself true in many cases while trying to understand the cold war phenomenon. The end of World War II marked the start of the cold war. The cold war was essentially a struggle of power between the west led by United States of America (USA) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Although both were partners during the World War II but their differences arose soon after the war on the future shape of the world. The USA led the western block whereas USSR created the eastern block comprising over eastern European countries and countries annexed by USSR. The cold war was multifaceted. It signified a bi-polar world where both US and USSR were striving for hegemony on political, military and economic fronts. Both had their ambitions but had the fears of other’s dominance resulting in efforts of balance of power as well. The cold war reached it culminating point when USSR invaded Afghanistan and tried to reach the warm waters whereas US used its diplomacy and resources to stop USSR. It ended in 1991 when the later collapsed due to economic, military and political turmoil. The cold war is named as such because through out this era no actual war took place between the two sides but the threat of such war kept looming the political world throughout. Such was the tension between the two sides that the world at large feared a World War

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Anishinabe people and our homeland Research Paper

Anishinabe people and our homeland - Research Paper Example The truth is emphasized on ensuring that young people get well prepared to face new phase of their journey in all the steps of life. The basic learning experiences through the term involve several aspects. One of the aspects is enabling students to have a critical way of thinking. The teaching and learning goals may be very different (Audlin, 55). The learning experiences within this term ensure that an individual is capable of monitoring his or her own mind habits. The individual is also facilitated with basic intellectual capabilities as well as personal qualities. Learning through the term was fostered towards helping the students develop analysis capabilities where they can explain problems and develop an argument about same problem X using concept Y as depicted through the clan system of learning. Comprehension of concepts by students is evidenced by their position to analyze situation X and the ability to distinguish the concepts from common misconception (Trudeau, 34). The clan system insists on different outcomes at the end of a given term. For instance, by the end of this term, the clans system insists that all the students should have acquired basic analysis and be able to explain human behavior in terms of relationships among multiple factors (John, DeWitt, and Erwin 139). In a wider range, students should be able to understand how marginality is the broader learning category, linked to the understanding of nature (Trudeau, 54). The learning experiences are characterized by engaging activities that optimized every learner’s learning both in time and effectiveness. The term was also characterized by both hybrid learning and blended learning. Per se, the two terms mean a mix of online learning activities and quizzes with instructors-led teaching. Most of the instructors maintained a ‘coach on the side’ ways of teaching other than ‘sage on the stage’ methods. The learning activities were flexible

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Importance of Employer Branding Concepts

Importance of Employer Branding Concepts Terms of references This report highlights the rising awareness for the development of Employer Branding concept and its benefits for the organisations in present competitive labour market. The conflict between effective employer branding and employees rights and satisfaction toward organization has been examined in this report with specific focus on the unethical and controlling effect. Introduction Employer branding is the perception of employees about an organization as a place to work. Its designed for motivating and securing employees alignment with the vision and values of the organizations. From the HR perspective the concept was subsumed the older term INTERNAL BRANDING that was essentially the process of communicating an organizations brand value to its employee. Employer branding The concept of EMPLOYER BRANDING was created in the 1990s by Simon Barrow, who founded People in Business (now part of TMP Worldwide) and was the co-author of The Employer Brand. 1 In the past, Barrow had been a consumer goods brand manager and headed up an advertising agency in London, but later became the chief executive of a recruitment agency. He was immediately struck by the similarities between the challenges faced in promoting consumer goods and in publicising the strengths of an organisations employee proposition. Both, he recognised, required a strong brand, and so the concept of employer branding was conceived. Barrow defined the employer brand as the package of functional, economic and psychological benefits provided by employment and identified with the employing company. Sullivan (2004) defines employer branding as a targeted, long-term strategy to manage the awareness and perceptions of employees, potential employees, and related stakeholders with regards to a particular firm. Ambler and Barrow (1996) define employer brand in terms of the benefits it conveys on employees. In other words, the employer brand represents the array of economic, functional and psychological benefits that an employee might receive because of joining an organization. Just as product brands convey an image to customers, an employer brand conveys an organizational image to potential and current employees. In that regard, the employer brand presents a value proposition about what people might receive as a result of working for a particular employer (Backhaus and Tikoo, 2004). These definitions indicate that emp loyer branding means promoting and building an identity and a clear view of what makes an organization different and desirable as an employer. It has similarities with product and corporate branding but the key difference is its more employment specific. Recruitment and employer branding Developing an employer brand is a combination of adopting vision, values, and behaviours, and delivering a service that shows commitment to best practice and service excellence. It begins with the recruitment process that offers number of tools that can be used to create perceptions of an employing organization, these tools are: 1. Job advertisement and description 2. Interview process 3. Offer letters 4. Information pack for new recruiters 5. Employee handbooks 6. Induction and training. The recruitment process is an important way to build a positive relationship between the organization and employee. Throughout the procedure, the organization can create a strong and positive view about them; even it can be extended to unsuccessful candidates as well. When employees have accepted the sincerity and accuracy of the employer brand, they will carry it forward, actively promoting the brand to colleagues and customers. However, employer branding which is basically untruthful will not work and is likely to be counter-productive. Benefits of Employer Branding Long-term impact: Successful employer brand can have positive impacts on recruiting for at least five years baring any major PR issues surrounding the company. Increased volume of spontaneous candidates: The number of applicants will increase each year. In some cases, applications will increase by 500%. Higher quality candidates: Not only the quantity but the quality of candidates will improve dramatically, individuals who never would have considered in the past will start applying. Higher offer-acceptance rates: As employment image becomes better known and more powerful, firms offer acceptance rates will improve dramatically. Increased employee motivation: Employee motivation will be easier to maintain because of employees increased pride in the firm and the better management practices that are required to maintain an employer-of-choice status. A stronger corporate culture: Because one of the goals of employment branding is to develop a consistent message about what its like to work and what it feel to be a part of the organization, employment branding can help strengthen firms corporate culture. Decreased corporate negatives: Effective branding programs identify and counter negative comments about the organisation. Increased manager satisfaction: The resulting higher quality of candidates and higher offer-acceptance rate means that hiring managers will have to devote less time to interviews, and they will be more satisfied with the recruiting function. A competitive advantage: Because employment branding efforts include extensive metrics and side-by-side comparisons with talent competitors, firms can ensure that their talent-management approaches are differentiated and continually superior. Increased shareholder value: The effective and improved employer image can positively impact a firms stock price. Support for the product brand: An employment brand can support the corporate brand and related product brands because many consumers mentally make the link between attracting quality employees and producing a quality product. The brand essence should summarize what the brand stands for, becoming the nucleus for product development, all communications and even HR initiatives for employees. Its definition should also be consistent with the corporate vision/mission and values. For example, Volvo is a good example of a brand description is Volvo Style, driving pleasure and superior ownership experience while celebrating human values and respecting the environment. Volvos values and associations reflecting this brand identity are what are considered to be typically Scandinavian e.g. nature, security and health, human values, elegant simplicity, creative engineering and the spirit of stylish/innovative functionality. For Volvo, this description not only mirrors the psycho-graphic profile of the ideal customer for their cars, but also summarizes what Volvo as a company means to all its workers its employer brand. These are intrinsic values that Volvo workers can relate to, what they believe in and why they feel comfortable making a commitment to their jobs. One can easily visualize the types of HR programs that would inspire a sense of pride and re-enforce these intangibles e.g. nature, health, security and other meaningful human values. Living the brand LIVING THE BRAND is identifying with an organizations brand value to such an extent that employees behaviours fit exactly to the image that the business is trying to portray to its customers (Alan Price 2007). The alignment between employees behaviour and value of organizations brand image is very important. It is suggested that organisations need to ensure that there is no gap between what the organisation is saying in the outside world and what people believe inside the business. The employees should be perceived as Brand ambassador and brand marketing would only be successful if they LIVE THE BRAND. From this perspective: 1. Organizations have encouraged employees to buy in to the business vision and values. 2. They have to ensure that everyone in the organization clearly understand the purpose of the common set of values. According to Ind (2004), the themes discussed are likely to be of interest to HR and marketing practitioners as well as those involved in internal communications within organisations. Employees themselves are expected to internalise features and aspects of the organisations brand to ensure that they become brand champions, thus helping to represent to organisations brand to the outside customers. Such an approach immediately raises some interesting problems relating to equality and diversity as it expects each employee to share a particular set of values and act in accordance with these values. The employee branding approach being recommended by Ind raises a number of challenges for those interested in an equality and diversity agenda. An organisation that aims to ensure that empl oyees are living the brand will specifically aim to attract and recruit employees who already share the values of the corporate brand. Furthermore, those already employed within the organisation will be encouraged to internalise the values of the organisation. Clearly, there are problems for encouraging diversity here, with one of the principles of diversity management being an acceptance and recognition that people are different and individual differences (especially of values) should be welcomed. Inherently, a living the brand focus is likely to go against such a principle. Ind makes the point that encouraging employee identification and commitment to the organisations brand values might deny an expression of individuality. However, Ind suggests that internal branding combined with allowing employees to be empowered will enable freedom with order. Denial of individuality (dress code policy) When it comes to professional image, many employers are realising that Standards of dress and personal presentation are essential thus having a policy on dress code can be important. Where the employees meet customers, they act as the shop window for the company and the benefits of presentable appearance are obvious. However, even where the employees work is internal, there are less tangible benefits such as: Creating a team atmosphere, Engendering standards of professionalism, and Creating a corporate image. As employers are realising this, they are paying more attention to the appearance of their employees and the image and perception of the business dress, grooming and personal hygiene are all part and parcel of this. However, the issue of work place dress codes can be highly controversial. It is vital that employers are aware of the discrimination issues that dress codes can create. Issues with work place dress codes In organisations with uniforms, the issues can be more wide ranging. For instance, at the Greater Manchester Police Force, bureaucracy and unwillingness to accept change has hampered the introduction of hijabs for Muslim women. At Inchcape Fleet Solutions where all 140 non-senior staffs are provided with polo shirts or blouses branded with the company logo the style of the uniform does not suit all staff and most do not like wearing it. This would affect their moods at work and consequently affect their performance. Complaints of discrimination Furthermore, a complaint was raised informally by the staff forum of child trust fund provider Family Investments and relates to the fact that women can wear trousers that are not full length, while men cannot. Employees have requested that the company allows shorts to be worn, as long as they are below the knee Also, in September 2006, a British Airways worker has been suspended and attended an appeal over wearing a cross at work at Heathrow Airport. She claims the suspension is discriminatory, especially since the airline allows Sikh employees to wear traditional iron bangles and Muslim workers to wear headscarves.BA has said it will review its uniform policy in light of the media storm the story has provoked. Employer branding and discrimination law There are three areas of discrimination relevant to dress code policy: 1. Sex Discrimination Act 1975 2. Religious or Belief Regulations 2003 3. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. Sex discrimination and dress codes There is the obvious potential for sex discrimination in any dress code, which sets different requirements for men and women. Past claims have challenged policies that: women must wear skirts men should not have long hair Men must wear a collar and tie. The case of Matthew Thompson who objected to the dress code imposed by the Department for Work Pensions at his place of work, a job centre in Stockport, can also be a good example. Mr Thompson claimed that the dress code discriminated against male employees as they were forced to wear a collar and tie whereas female employees could wear T-shirts to work. The Employment Tribunal found in favour of Mr Thompson stating that the dress code was discriminatory as the requirement to wear a collar and tie was gender based and there were no items of clothing that were imposed on women in the same office. From the Thompson case, it became clear that employers should be careful in the way that they draft their dress codes. Employers are not prevented from imposing dress codes that require employees to wear specified items of clothing as long as the code is drafted in such a way as to be even-handed between men and women. For example, jobs in the City, the current convention is for both men and women to wear suits. The convention is that a man should wear a tie with a suit but the same does not apply to a woman. A dress code requiring a smart suit could apply to both sexes but be enforced in a non-discriminatory manner appropriate for each sex. Religion/belief discrimination and dress codes A dress code that requires employees to act in a way contrary to their religious beliefs, risks being indirectly discriminatory. Thus, a dress code forbidding headgear will be discriminatory to male Sikhs, who must wear a turban. The best way to avoid these problems is to be as non-specific as possible. A widely worded dress code requiring smart appearance, with non-binding examples of suitable dress, cannot fall foul of specific clothing-related beliefs. To cross-check your dress code against the main religions clothing beliefs, refer to Acas Guide on Religion and Belief which has a useful chart at Appendix 2 (pages 40-50). It may be possible for employers to objectively justify a dress code contrary to any of these beliefs, if it can be done so objectively. For example, employees at a chocolate factory were successfully prohibited from having beards for health and safety reasons. However, employers should be very wary of relying on objective justification as the courts are reluc tant to accept it. There may be a question mark in some cases whether a persons views are beliefs. According to Acas, Rastafarianism (which requires the wearing of a hat) is a belief system. Certain political beliefs or powerful sentiments such as patriotism (the wearing of an American flag badge) may or may not be regarded as beliefs. Employers should respect beliefs that are strongly held whether or not they are religious in nature. Disability discrimination and dress codes Disabled employees may not be able to comply with a dress code, for example, an employee with a neck injury unable to wear a tie. However, by and large, this need not affect the way the code is drafted; instead, employers should be sensitive in the enforcement of the dress code. In summary, employers should be quite a bit flexible when writing a policy on employee dress or appearance. Reasonable flexibility and sensitivity to the employees racial differences should be allowed in the dress code to make employees comfortable and any conflict and law suits, while meeting the Trust standard of Dress code. This view is echoed by organisations such as Broker Network, which believes that employees should be able to make their own judgments on what is best to wear. Many companies are now turning their backs on the concept of dress-down Fridays, opting instead to ditch smart business-wear every day of the week. A survey of 560 organisations has found that four out of five employers believe a more relaxed dress code leads to greater productivity. Nine out of 10 organisations that replied to the poll by the Peninsula employment law consultancy had declared ties an unnecessary part of their dress code. Conclusion The issues discussed above create a challenge for HR professionals involved in employee focused branding projects, especially those where employees are expected to share a specific set of values. That is that such initiatives will undoubtedly create a tension and potentially conflict with principles underlying an equality and diversity agenda. Inds suggestion that inside-out branding allows freedom and order remains unconvincing even when the employees are involved in constructing the brand values. An organisation that dictates a set of values for employees to internalise is still a homogenising force. Organisations that genuinely take diversity programmes seriously will have to tackle this tension. One possible way out of this conundrum is to include equality and diversity awareness as a key value included in the internal brand proposition. Recommendations Any guidelines should be carefully drafted, and employers are advised to treat any requests to dress contrary to the company code for religious or racial reasons with respect. Employers should consult the employee in question and discuss how to accommodate reasonable requests, and try to find a favourable solution. A tribunal will be more likely to be sympathetic to the employer where a policy is required for health and safety purposes, rather than simply to maintain a corporate image. Decide what restrictions on employees appearance are necessary and why. For example, teachers are expected to wear sensible footwear, suitable for the activities their job involves. Restrictions should not be excessive or unreasonable, for instance insisting on suits or ties in the office when employees are not customer-facing. Set out the guidelines clearly, and include the rationale behind any restrictions. Explain why restrictions may be placed on some employees but not others (for example, no body piercing for those operating heavy machinery for health and safety purposes, and those working within a cafà © of a supermarket may have stricter codes enforced on them than those who work in the same store, but dont come into direct contact with food). Give employees notice of when the policy will come into force. Allow employees a grace period before disciplining for non-compliance. Explain what will happen if employees are found to be in persistent breach of the policy (disciplinary action and, potentially, dismissal). Give the name of an individual that employees can talk to if they feel they cannot comply with the policy. Current legislation on issues that could lead to discrimination should be reviewed from time to time, and staff handbook should be read by employment lawyers to ensure compliance. Guidelines should also be updated to accommodate the legislation. Base the policy on business-related reasons. Explain your reasons in the policy so employees understand the rationale behind the restrictions. Common business-related reasons include maintaining the organizations public image, promoting a productive work environment, or complying with health and safety standards. Require employees to have an appropriate, well-gro omed appearance. Even casual dress policies should specify what clothing is inappropriate (such as sweat suits, shorts, and jeans) and any special requirements for employees who deal with the public. Communicate the policy. Use employee handbooks or memos to alert employees to the new policy, any revisions, and the penalties for noncompliance. In addition, explain the policy to job candidates. Apply the dress code policy uniformly to all employees. This can prevent claims that the policy adversely affects women or minorities. However, you may have to make exceptions if required by law. (See next suggestion.) Make reasonable accommodation when the situation requires an exception. Be prepared to accommodate requests for religious practices and disabilities, such as head coverings and facial hair. Apply consistent discipline for dress code violations. When disciplining violators, point out why their attire does not comply with the code and what they can do to comply REFERENCES: Edwards, M. R. (2008) Employees as a Focus of Branding Activities: A Review of Recent Contributions to the Literature and the Implications for Workplace Diversity, Equal opportunities international. Vol 27(5) pp. 447-481 [online] Available from: www.emerald.com [Accessed 1 April 2009] Carrington, L (2007) EMPLOYER BRANDING [Online] Available from: http://globaltalentmetrics.com/articles/EB_2007_Brandempl.pdf [Accessed 26 March 2009] Wolff, C. (2007) EMPLOYERS USE DRESS CODES TO ENHANCE CORPORATE IMAGE, IRS. Issue 878. Available from: http://www.xperthr.co.uk [Accessed 26 March 2009] Downes, J. (2007) POLICY CLINIC: DRESS CODES, [online] Available from: http://0-www.xperthr.co.uk.lispac.lsbu.ac.uk/article/81919/policy-clinicdress-codes.aspx?searchwords=Policy+clinic%3a+Dress+codes [Accessed 26 March 2009] Millar, M (2006) EMPLOYERS RELAXING WORK DRESS CODE CAN HELP IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY, [online] Available from: http://www.personneltoday.com/articles/2006/07/26/36558/employers-relaxing-work-dress-code-can-help-improve.html [Accessed 26 March 2009] Dr. Sullivan, J (2008) EMPLOYMENT BRANDING: THE ONLY LONG-TERM RECRUITING STRATEGY, [online] Available from: http://www.drjohnsullivan.com/content/view/183/27/ [Accessed 26 March 2009] Stephen Morrall, S Urquhart, C (2003) SEX DISCRIMINATION ARE DRESS CODES DISCRIMINATORY? [online] Available from: http://www.drjohnsullivan.com/content/view/183/27/ [Accessed 26 March 2009] Gronlund, J K (2008) HOW EMPLOYER BRANDINGCAN FOSTER TRUSTS AND LOYALTY? [Online] Available from: http://www.employerbrand.com/Points_pathf.html [Accessed 26 March 2009]

Friday, October 25, 2019

Definitions of Self in Community in Morrisons Sula and Song of Solomon

Definitions of Self In Community in Sula and Song of Solomon        Ã‚  Ã‚   "In that place, where they tore the nightshade and blackberry patches from their roots to make room for the Medallion City Golf Course, there once was a neighborhood" (Sula 1). Toni Morrison begins the novel Sula with these powerful words, describing more than a physical place, but a spiritual place where a community once stood. She begins with the destruction of the community, ultimately beginning at the end because her novel traces the history of this community. In Song of Solomon. Morrison takes the opposite path. She traces the history of self that ultimately ends in a type of destruction when Milkman leaps off the cliff. In both novels, however, she explores the tension between self and community and the sacrifices each demand from the other. Morrison's characters are both empowered and restricted by the heavy sense of community that operates in her novels. In all of her novels the characters are pulled along by and enmeshed in the communities in which they live. In Sula and Song of Solomon the struggles of me community and me characters with in the framework of community are me driving force behind much of me novel. Both the characters and the larger communities are irrevocably changed throughout me course of the novels the as tension to define both individual and community surfaces. From the opening lines of Sula which foreshadows me ultimate deem of me community, Morrison calls attention to me sense of community in the Bottom. In "Eruptions of Funk. Susan Willis says, "The opening line from Sula might as well have been me novel's conclusion, so complete is the destructioni it describes. This is the community Morrison is writing to reclaim" (315)... ... Pessoni, Michele. â€Å"‘She was laughing at their God.’: Discovering the Goddess Within Sula.† African American Review 29 (1995): 439-451. Rigney, Barbara Hill. The Voices of Toni Morrison. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1991. Rubenstein, Roberta. â€Å"Pariahs and Community.† Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K. A. Appiah. New York: Amistad Press, Inc., 1993. 126-1 58. Smith, Valerie. â€Å"Song of Solomon: Continuities of Community.† Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K. A. Appiah. New York: Amistad Press, Inc., 1993. 274-283. Willis, Susan. â€Å"Eruptions of Funk: Historicizing Toni Morrison.† Toni Morrison : Critical Perspectives Past and Present. Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K.A. Appiah. New York: Amistad Press, Inc., 1993. 308-329.