Saturday, August 31, 2019
Global demand for energy has quickly increased as populations have increased and the demands of developing states have increased. Some estimations claim that demand for energy could increase by every bit much as 50 % by 2030 ( Hunter 2007 ) . This possible addition has every state scrambling for a stable beginning of oil and natural gas. The traditional beginnings of oil and natural gas have become less dependable. Instability in the Middle East has many states looking for new beginnings of oil, but this has become harder to happen. Many states that were one time spouses to big oil companies such as Russia and Venezuela have become less dependable as beginnings for oil ( Appenzellar 2004 ) . In 1960 85 % of known reservoirs were accessible to oil companies but now merely 16 % of reservoirs are accessible ( Rowell 2007 ) . New countries need to be opened up and explored in order to happen dependable beginnings of oil. The Arctic appears to be one of the most promising countries.Histor y of Arctic oilIn the 1970 Ã¢â¬Ës and 1980 Ã¢â¬Ës onshore crude oil roars took topographic point in Siberia and Alaska ( Funk 2009 ) . Alaska Ã¢â¬Ës roar began in 1967 when oil workers for Atlantic Richfield Corporation discovered the largest oil reservoir in North America on Alaska Ã¢â¬Ës North Slope near Prudhoe Bay ( Coppock 2004 ) . Thousands of work forces moved to Alaska trusting to do their wealths boring and edifice the monolithic grapevines necessary to travel the oil to the Continental United States. Billions of dollars were pumped into a antecedently quiet country. This one time great part is in diminution. Siberia had a similar roar in the 1970 Ã¢â¬Ës but they are get downing to see a diminution similar to Alaska Ã¢â¬Ës. Siberia Ã¢â¬Ës oil Fieldss, which presently make Russia the largest manufacturer of oil, are expected to run out in the following 10 old ages ( Appenzeller 2004 ) .Future of Arctic OilSurveies show that the Arctic Ocean may incorporate a bi g sum of recoverable oil and natural gas. This includes non merely the land contained by the Arctic Circle, but besides the Arctic Ocean, which is considered to be the largest prospective beginning of oil and natural gas for the hereafter ( Gautier 2004 ) .Measure of Oil and Natural gasThe United States Geological Survey has predicted that about 30 % of the universe Ã¢â¬Ës undiscovered gas and 13 % of the universe Ã¢â¬Ës undiscovered oil is under the surface of the Arctic Ocean ( Gautier 2004 ) . The sum of gas in merely one of the major reservoirs is estimated to be the full gas militias of the United States ( Moran 2006 ) .Location of oilGood oil and gas reservoirs are so rare for a big portion because of the alone types of stone formations that can incorporate natural gas. The stone formation must be porous plenty to keep natural gas and oil and the formation must besides be permeable plenty for oil and natural gas to flux through the formation in order for oil to be recovera ble. Porosity and permeableness are the grounds that reservoirs are found about entirely in sedimentary stones. The bulk of crude oil bearing formations are contained in the huge Continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean. These shelves take up more than half of the Arctic Ocean, as shown by the lighter shadiness of bluish in Figure 2.These shelves by and large lie in less than 160 metres of H2O, a deepness that current boring engineering can easy bring forth ( Harrison 1979 ) . Arctic map Figure 2: Depth of the Arctic Ocean ( hypertext transfer protocol: //gdr.nrcan.gc.ca ) Sedimentary stone formations have besides been found in deeper H2O. A recent coring expedition found sedimentary stone formations in 1100 metres of H2O. This coring expedition drilled into The Lomonosov ridge, which is indicated by the pointer in Figure 2 ( Moran 2006 ) .Regulating THE ARCTIC OCEANUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the SeaThe current opinion organic structure in the Arctic Ocean is the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ( UNCLOS ) . Russia, Norway, Canada, and Denmark all border the Arctic Ocean and have all ratified this pact, go forthing the United States as the lone state that borders the Arctic Ocean that has non.Claiming LandUNCLOS regulations say that a state may exert control within 200 maritime stat mis from a state Ã¢â¬Ës shoreline ( Holmes 2008 ) . In order to claim land beyond this 200 stat mi grade a state must turn out that the seafloor is an extens ion of the state Ã¢â¬Ës Continental shelf ( Underhill 2005 ) . The states involved have begun passing 1000000s of dollars in order to map the ocean floor utilizing high tech echo sounder devices. Mapping is a good start but the lone existent manner to happen where a shelf ends is by happening the exact point where stone types alteration, which can merely be done by boring for samples of the seafloor ( Underhill 2005 ) . The logistics of boring for samples in the Arctic Ocean is a really hard and expensive undertaking.Major DisputesThere are several parts of major difference over the Arctic Ocean. The most of import difference is the dissension between Russia, Denmark, and Canada over who has the rights to the Lomonosov Ridge, The Barents Sea Loop Hole, and the Western Nansen Basin. The Lomosov Ridge is seen as the stepping rock for Denmark, Canada and Russia to claim the Arctic. Each has claimed that the ridge is in fact an extension of their Continental shelf. The Barents Sea is located North of Russia and Norway, and both states have submitted overlapping claims for sovereignty in this country. The two most relevant differences in The Barents Sea are over the Loop Hole and the Western Nansen Basin ( Holmes 2008 ) . Both Norway and Russia appear to be negociating a pact on their ain, so it does non look that the UNCLOS will necessitate them to do a determination. Figure 1: Diagram Lomonosov Ridge ( benmuse.typepad.com ) Russia has been the most aggressive in claiming this ridge. Russia has already submitted a claim excessively much of the ocean floor utilizing the ridge as the ground tackle of their claim s ( McKenzie 2009 ) . Canada and Denmark have been making extended seismal studies to turn out that the ridge is in fact a portion of their several Continental shelves in order to challenge Russia Ã¢â¬Ës claim. The Lomonosov Ridge is really of import to all states involved because boring has proven that there is natural gas underneath the ridge ( Underhill 2009 ) .http: //benmuse.typepad.com/ben_muse/images/2007/08/08/lomonosov_ridge_2_2.gifDeciding Disputes Under UNCLOSThe simplest solution for deciding differences is for parties involved to settle the difference informally, but if states are unable to make so there are several other ways of settling differences ( Holmes 2008 ) . Other possibilities include the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the International Court of Justice, or an arbitrary court. Whenever a state ratifies the convention, the state chooses what forum they would prefer to work out any differences, but jobs arise when the disputing states can non hold on a forum. UNCLOS does non hold compulsory forum for challenging claims when states can non hold on a forum, so sometimes it can be really hard to happen a solution to a difference ( Holmes 2008 ) .Other GovernmentsThe UNCLOS is chiefly concerned with the spliting up of the sea bed under the Arctic Ocean, instead than with regulations and ordinances to protect transportation involvements and environmental protection. To get by with this many other organisations have been trying to make full the nothingness by doing suggestions and guidelines to guarantee that states are guaranting safety for both workers and the environment ( Berkman 2009 ) .Geneva ConventionThe Geneva Convention consists of a series of pacts made after World War II to set up Ã¢â¬Å" regulations of war Ã¢â¬ ( Homes 2008 ) . The 1958 Geneva Convention said that in Continental shelf differences for states with next seashores should be determined by pulling a average line between the two seashores if no other understanding can be made ( Holmes 2008 ) . Although this understanding predates the UNCLOS, every state involved in the Arctic has ratified the convention, so the convention would be used if the UNCLOS could non convert the involved states to hold.International Maritime OrganizationThe International Maritime Organization may non hold any official power, yet they still adopted a set of guidelines for transporting operations in the Arctic Ocean called Guidelines for Ships Operating in Ice Covered Arctic Waters ( Berkman 2009 ) . These guidelines are followed by every major state involved in transporting in the Arctic, but an international government organic structure needs to put official ordinances for the Arctic, because deficiency of ordin ance is certain to go a job as traffic additions.Northeast Atlantic Fisheries CommissionThe Northeast Atlantic Fisheries Commission regional piscary direction organisation Ã¢â¬Ës is a regional understanding whose range is wide plenty for their understandings to cover a big part of the Arctic Basin. It is the lone official international organisation that covers pollution criterions in any portion of the Arctic ( Berkman 2009 ) . A development of this kind is needed to protect the big and alone ecosystem of the Arctic.ENVIRONMENTAL RISKSOffshore oil and gas geographic expedition in the Arctic Ocean poses several of import environmental hazards particularly in such a sensitive environment as the Arctic. Positioned at the top of the universe, the Arctic part provides many valuable natural resources such as fresh H2O, fishing, and rare home grounds for endangered species. The Arctic Archipelago is besides place to scarce populations of Eskimos and other colonists. The hazards chiefly a ssociated with offshore boring in the part involve possible oil spills and the pollutants generated during production operations. These factors can take to rough effects on homo and wildlife wellness along with the wellness of the environment.Oil SpillsDue to the recent BP calamity in the Gulf of Mexico in early 2010 and other memorable rig calamities, apprehensiveness about the oil and gas industry Ã¢â¬Ës impact on the planet has grown. Production companies have become a mark of environmental groups all over the universe as they drill into the land and run out the Earth Ã¢â¬Ës non-renewable resources. A immense consideration into prospective boring in the Arctic Ocean is the possibility of an oil spill, which could be particularly unsafe to the sensitive wildlife of the part. With the tough climatic and icy conditions of the Arctic, a big oil spill in the part could be a logistical incubus. The surveies and research about possible oil clean up in the Arctic focal points on the behaviour of oil in the cold clime to happen methods of remotion and simulation trials to analyse response times.Cold Temperatures and Ice BarriersResearch shows that the cold Arctic temperatures and presence of ice can assist to cut down environmental impacts and increase response effectivity. The cold Arctic Ocean changes the physical features and behaviour of oil in H2O. The equilibrium thickness of oil is greater in cold H2O intending the oil will remain centralized in a smaller country and spread less quickly. This benefits recovery by leting longer response times and raising removal per centums. Assorted hydrocarbons Ã¢â¬Ë vaporization rates are reduced in low temperatures, giving response squads a greater opportunity to take more oil before these constituents disappear into the ambiance. Although the huge sum of ice in the Arctic Ocean hinders human mobilisation, blocks of ice can move as barriers to halt the oil from distributing, hence doing unmoved combustion and surface skimmers more effectual. High ice concentrations may besides encapsulate the spilled oil, maintaining the oil isolated from ecosystems until the toxic hydrocarbons are removed. Each of these features helps to better the effectivity of an oil spill killing ( Velez et al. 2010 ) .Response Simulation SurveiesCompanies and industry leaders have conducted several simulation undertakings to prove response times and killing processs given different variables and conditions. In their article, G. M. Skeie et Al. outlined a simulation survey to prove 1800 possible scenarios that could happen in the field. The research workers designed the survey to turn to possible results of an oil spill and analyse the effectivity of different responses. The scenarios featured variables such as Ã¢â¬Å" starting clip, shortest impetus clip to shore, weave conditions, and stranded oil sums Ã¢â¬ ( Skeie et al. 2006 ) . The squad calculated the environmental hazards and sum of oil stranded after fake respon se steps and used this information to compare the different response schemes. Several research plans and simulation surveies like this have been funded by Ã¢â¬Å" oil companies every bit good as other organisations, either independently, through Joint Industry Projects ( JIP ) , or as portion of an industry association Ã¢â¬ ( Velez et al. 2010 ) to better response methods and fix for these exigencies.Recovery SchemesThe possible oil spill recovery schemes are mechanical recovery, chemical dispersant applications and controlled combustion. Mechanical recovery methods deploy big oil-skimming vass that skim the oil off the ocean Ã¢â¬Ës surface and utilize containment roars to forestall oil from distributing. Mechanical recovery is the most common and practical solution used in oil spill responses in the yesteryear ; nevertheless this method will confront challenges during periods of high ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean. On the other manus, chemical dispersants, which have b een Ã¢â¬Å" recognized worldwide as an environmentally acceptable and extremely efficient agencies of quickly extinguishing spilled oil offshore, Ã¢â¬ ( Velez et al. 2010 ) can be applied aerially and distribute by strong air currents and beckon action. Research and field trials have proven these dispersants to be effectual in the rough Arctic conditions, despite misconceptions. In-situ ( Latin for Ã¢â¬Å" in topographic point Ã¢â¬ ) combustion besides offers another valuable option to mechanical recovery that can take spilled oil rapidly and expeditiously. Burning techniques are besides really effectual for scenarios with high ice concentrations or when big sums of oil are trapped in ice. By-products of firing oil have minimal harmful aquatic effects. Research shows that although the Arctic is a extremely sensitive and ambitious environment, the idea of cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic Ocean is non hideous despite popular public sentiment. Companies and industry leaders have devoted clip and support to fix for an exigency and to analyze the environmental hazards of an oil spill in the Arctic.Operational PollutantsLarge volumes of waste merchandises and risky air pollutants are generated during seaward production operations. This subdivision identifies the environmental menaces associated with these pollutants.Drilling WastesAs Eia and Hernandez province in their article, Ã¢â¬Å" A major issue facing operators today is the big volume of greasy waste liquids produced during well operations Ã¢â¬ ( Eia and Hernandez 2006 ) . The waste watercourse excreted by production operations includes boring clay or fluids, produced Waterss, and bore film editings. Each of these merchandises contains variable composings of toxic chemicals that can infect the environment and harm aquatic life. Technology betterments in boring and production processs have greatly decreased boring waste volumes, Ã¢â¬Å" as today, industry adds 2 to 4 times more oil and gas to the US modesty base per good than in the 1980saÃâ Ã ¦with 65 per centum less waste being generated Ã¢â¬ ( Rana 2008 ) . However, the environmental impact due to each production Wellss Ã¢â¬Ë waste watercourse, irrespective of the concentration of scarce toxic stuff, can non be ignored because on a expansive graduated table, these pollutants combine to bring forth a huge environmental footmark. Drilling claies are an indispensable portion of the boring and production procedure because the fluids lubricate and chill the drill spot and pipe, take drill film editings, and command bottom-hole force per unit areas. These fluids can either be water-based, oil-based, or man-made oil-based depending on the boring scenario, with oil-based fluids being the most toxic. The boring clay can incorporate many harmful chemical compounds and toxic stuffs, such as additives, oil, lubricating oil, and many radioactive elements. The waste fluids can respond with the environment through groundwater or surface H2O reservoirs, inadvertent release from intervention installations, soaking up into the dirt, or vaporisation of volatile constituents. The United States Environmental Protection Agency requires that boring claies transcending certain degrees of chemical concentrations are disposed of in onshore waste disposal installations or deep injection Wellss. However, boring wastes that do non run into this standard can either be taken to a landfill or released into the organic structure of H2O where the toxic stuff can respond with the environment ( Rana 2008 ) . Several companies have worked towards Ã¢â¬Å" boring and completion fluids that are greener and more biodegradable Ã¢â¬ ( Eia, Hernandez 2006 ) . One such company is M-I SWACO, which invents boring and environmental solutions for Schlumberger, a big boring service company. During the oil and gas production procedure, produced Waterss such as formation H2O, injection H2O, or other industrial Waterss are generated in the well-hole with changing degrees of hydrocarbon concentrations. These Waterss besides contain hints of heavy metals and other chemical solutions, such as inhibitors and biocides, which prevent micro-organisms from moving of course. On site separation methods aim to take oil and toxic chemicals from the produced Waterss, nevertheless fractional composings remain irrespective of separation effectivity. The staying dissolved hydrocarbons and other chemicals become pollutants when the produced Waterss are discharged into the organic structure of H2O, Ã¢â¬Å" volumes of such discharges reach 1000s of dozenss of oil a twelvemonth, Ã¢â¬ ( Rana 2008 ) on a world-wide graduated table. Companies frequently dispose of produced H2O with potentially unsafe composings in deep aquifers isolated from groundwater reservoirs, nevertheless inadvertent re lease is still a menace to be considered.Gas EmissionsNatural gas sedimentations normally contain unsafe gases such as methane, H sulphide, and other volatile organic compounds. When reservoir force per unit areas are high, which is surely possible in the deep militias of the Arctic Ocean, runawaies and detonations become unsafe environmental menaces because of gas emanations. Flaring is another procedure that can let go of unsafe compounds into the ambiance ; flaring is utilised to command force per unit area malfunctions and to divide oil and gas composings by firing off and let go ofing extra reservoir gases. The gases released during flame uping can include sulfur dioxide, benzine, nitrogen oxide and methylbenzene, which are responsible for several human wellness jobs. S. Rana predicts that Ã¢â¬Å" a individual offshore rig emits the same measure of pollution as 7000 autos driving 80 kilometres a twenty-four hours. Ã¢â¬ Another fright related to gas emanations is the add-on of harmful chemical compounds to the planet Ã¢â¬Ës agony atmosphere and ozone bed. All the recent attending to planetary heating and the Arctic Ã¢â¬Ës runing ice caps raises consciousness of gas emanations. Future production undertakings in the Arctic Ocean are traveling to be watched acutely for environmental errors and operational impacts. Before mass boring in the Arctic can take topographic point, gas emanations have to be reduced or eliminated wholly, or the liquescent ice conditions will decline. There are a few chief environmental hazards associated with Arctic boring: the impact on the environing environment ; the danger for the endangered and sensitive wildlife of the part ; and the hazard of harming human populations. Large volumes of toxic chemicals can organize in the Arctic if careful environmental protection programs are non taken to cut down toxicity degrees and to forestall oil spills. High concentrations of toxic chemicals can turn throughout the nutrient concatenation, jeopardizing wildlife and aquatic species, and finally endangering human populations. If gas emanations are non cut off wholly, the ambiance will endure from increasing nursery gases taking to human wellness jeopardies and endangering planetary heating conditions.Drilling IN THE ARCTICHistorically, boring economically executable Wellss in the Arctic was hard due to extreme conditions conditions, environmental concerns, and the deficiency of boring engineering. However, technological promotions have created several feasible chances to bore Wellss in countries of the Arctic that were ab initio seen as wasteful due to the high costs of boring and production operations.Onshore Drilling in the ArcticOne of the chief jobs with boring and finishing an onshore well in the Arctic is happening a manner for the rig and its workers to execute at a high degree while covering with the utmost conditions conditions and clip restraints. The Alaskan boring season was comprised of 130 available boring yearss, get downing in late December and normally go oning through late April, doing finishing a well from start to complete really hard. Access to the Arctic tundra is non possible until around mid Ã¢â¬â December, hence rig can non get down boring until late December and so normally finish boring about May 1st, which is the cause for the short boring season. The mean onshore good in the Arctic, get downing with the mobilisation of the rig and coating with the demobilisation of the rig, requires 90 yearss to finish which allows for about one well, per rig, per season to be drilled. The bulk of those 90 yearss were used in set uping up and set uping down on the well site and non the existent boring of the well ( Shafer 2007 ) . Besides, highly cold temperatures pose one of the largest menaces to set up in the Arctic, because the ability of a rig to execute in highly cold conditions and trade with onsite jobs is indispensable to the boring operation being successful. Low temperatures and ice can decelerate, or even halt, all boring on a well site and waste big sums of money because no work is being done ( Keener and Allan 2009 ) .Hybrid Coil Tubing Drilling RigOne proposed thought to rush up good completion clip was to utilize a intercrossed spiral tubing boring rig ( CTD rig ) that was smaller and quicker to set up up and set up down. A CTD rig has the ability to bore conventionally, bore utilizing a rotary drill, and bore utilizing coiled tubing doing a CTD rig an effectua l option in several different conditions environments ( Shafer 2007 ) . Furthermore, extinguishing the sum of truck tonss traveling back and Forth from drill sites to refineries more than 50 stat mis is indispensable because day-to-day transit costs could sometimes be the day-to-day boring costs ( Keener and Allan 2009 ) . A CTD rig significantly reduces the sum of tonss needed to finish a well because the rig has fewer parts and can be operational in less than an hr after geting onsite. There are downsides to the CTD rig nevertheless ; CTD rigs were non originally designed for the Arctic, lack some of the protection a larger rig provides to it workers and do non hold the ability to bore past 7200 pess. The CTD rig has yet to happen a solution to covering with the cold temperatures while remaining operational. If the temperature drops below -350F, so all the Cranes will be shut down because the Cranes become brickle due to the cold. This job has troubled oil and gas geographic expedition in the Arctic throughout history and still causes job today. During the 2006 Alaskan boring season, from January to February, the mean temperature was -350F and the maximal temperature was -150F, which lowered the possible productiveness of Wellss while increasing the cost. While these challenges are important, overall the CTD rig could be a utile solution to happening an efficient rig to bore in the Arctic ( Shafer 2007 ) .Offshore Drilling in the ArcticWhile boring a good onshore o n the Arctic ice is a dashing undertaking, successfully boring an offshore well in the close Ã¢â¬â stop deading cold H2O is an even harder undertaking. Ice direction, limited boring deepness ranges, ice Ã¢â¬â filled Waterss, limited boring seasons, and exposure to severe conditions are merely some of the major jobs that offshore boring units must fact to be successful.Offshore Boring Unit of measurements in the ArcticThe Arctic conditions are so rough that new boring units must be designed specifically for the rough Arctic conditions. The new designs must non merely be efficient, but besides economical for the company boring the well. Several different types of boring units were examined such as semisubmersible boring units, doodly-squat Ã¢â¬â up boring units, and drillships. The semisubmersible boring units were rapidly ousted because the riser column had jobs with ice buildup, several infrastructures were left unfastened to the harsh conditions, and the unit took to hanke r to transport. The doodly-squat Ã¢â¬â up rig was besides deemed as unacceptable because its lattice legs were unfastened to the environment and had major ice buildup jobs. In add-on, transit of the unit took excessively much clip. Evaluation of the drillship showed that its capablenesss make the drillship the most logical pick as a possible solution. The drillship has a big hull that protects the riser column from ice buildup, and is able to transport itself expeditiously. The drillship solution besides offers self sufficiency for periods up to 8 months ( Keener and Allan 2009 ) .Logisticss of DrillshipsThere were several facets that were considered in the designs for a new drill drillship. The first job that interior decorators dealt with was the structural design. The bulk of conventional drillships had antecedently had their infrastructure and topside constructions, such as the derrick, made individually from the remainder of the ship and so loaded on the ship once its buildi ng was finished. Most of the individually constructed pieces needed extra conditions coverings to protect the ship Ã¢â¬Ës workers, but the coverings added important sums of weight to the ship and took up unneeded infinite ( Keener and Allan 2009 ) . Another issue taken into consideration is the altering ice conditions, which lead to the demand for a drillship that had a manner to cover with ice rapidly plenty to transport itself expeditiously while minimising transit costs. Additionally, there is a demand for a system that could maintain the ship accurately onsite while besides covering with the environmental conditions ( Allan et al. 2009 ) . While there are many logistical jobs that drillships brush with boring Wellss in the Arctic, we will concentrate on the stated jobs because they are the most relevant to the proposed solution.The Arctic Class MODU DrillshipAfter all the different jobs and possible boring reverses in the Arctic were taken into consideration, the Arctic Class Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit ( MODU ) Drillship was proposed as a solution ( Allan et al. 2009 ) .Structural DesignThe interior decorators constructed the MODU Drillship to include the individually constructed infrastructures and topside constructions and by incorporating these constructions into the hull off the ship and around a cardinal well building country ( Keener and Allan 2009 ) . By incorporating the infrastructures and topside constructions into the hull, interior decorators greatly increased the hull Ã¢â¬Ës cardinal hull lading ability and structural unity. This design besides eliminated the demand for many of the dearly-won conditions protection constructions because the constructions were now protected by the hull ( Allan et al. 2009 ) .Ice Management and TransportationThe following component interior decorators dealt with was the drillships transit capablenesss and ice direction scheme. The hull of the MODU Drillship, combined with pod Ã¢â¬â pushers to impel the ship, proved to be strong plenty to interrupt through the bulk of the ice necessary to acquire to boring locations. Risk appraisal shortly showed that non utilizing an iceboat bodyguard would be an ailment advised determination. Therefore the usage of ice ledgeman bodyguards determined the drillships ability to hasten the transit clip to location in ice filled Waterss ( Allan et al. 2009 ) .Keeping the Drillship OnsiteSeveral different types of positioning systems were evaluated for the MODU Drillship. A moorage system proved to be the lone type that would work efficaciously. A big part of the Arctic Waterss are considered to be shallow H2O boring locations and a dynamic placement system, in shallow H2O, could non supply plenty truth for the drillship to be effectual. After several surveies with different types of stuffs used in the moorage system and the constellation of the system, a 12 point moorage system that is arranged in four groups with three lines of ironss per group prove d to be the best solution. Several stuffs to utilize for lines were tested and the usage of ironss proved to be the best solution for the MODU Drillship because the drillships could manage heavy tonss, and the environment had the least consequence on the drillship itself. The four groups would so be set up equally spaced around the drillship so that they could work every bit good as possible. While different variables such as H2O deepness and environmental conditions finally determine what the best placement system for the state of affairs, the 12 point moorage system seemed the most logical and effectual for the MODU Drillship ( Allan et al. 2009 ) .
Friday, August 30, 2019
The federal government has changed the ground work and the organization of scholastic lessons in the educational systems in 2001 with the Ã¢â¬Å"No Child Left behind ActÃ¢â¬ . The law say that each state is to embrace English Language Learners in the state assessment and evaluate the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s language skill Ã¢â¬Å"with valid, reliable assessments in the areas of oral language and reading and writing skills, more specifically comprehension, speaking, listing, reading, and writingÃ¢â¬ (Cook, 2007). The requirements of these assessment also include assisting in the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ accomplishment of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s academic achievement standards.Since the federal standards has been made to the educational system there needs to be a new method created and evaluated in the way that states and schools can continue adjusting and properly evaluating English Language Learners. The population of English Language Learners has made a tremendous growth in American, over the past fe w years the English Language Learners has grown more the twenty percent and is predictable to increase more with time. With the population growing in our educational system modifications had to be made.The laws specifies that all children who are disabled, donÃ¢â¬â¢t speak English, or disadvantaged still have an equal right to an education. For the reason of English Language Learner comprehensive span the United States wanted something that could adjust and help as a wide range obligation and or standard required to applied in the educational system, so with the No Child Left behind act allowed it to be done. Since the states have to follow and stand by assessment guidelines as well as academic standards with the No Child Left Behind act people ask exactly how the non- English students would fit into this law.Assessment must also be given with unlimited probability that a student will pass in the regular education curriculums, even though they definitely let each state establish t heir own specific procedures that met with these probability. The complicating part is it has to link using both state and government academic standards. The Arizona or TESOL English language learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ standards obligatory are to work independently as a state but then again they are also obligatory to follow and manage the governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements. This can be completed by correctly combining the English language learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ into groups.This act should only be used when placing the students into groups, by doing this allows for identify that level of each child, such as their comprehension level as well as how much they know about speaking, listing, reading, and written in English the language. There are many different levels that are personalized or tiered into separate classifications for the age varieties. Each group has requirements in addition to the complete outline and details to dimensions from, as well as the requirements that the government has and it d oes not matter which state you are in they are all the same.These standards are identified as English language Proficiency Standards (ELP). The English language Proficiency Standards come in many different segments beginning with the age, then finishing with separable accomplishment and understanding. To begin with the most important factor would be the stage of development of a child, the students need to be properly divided by their developing skill and accurateness in reasoning purposes. There are four different categories in the age group, first there is kindergarten to second, next third to fifth, following sixth to eight, last is ninth to twelfth.Once the correct stage of development has been recognized and properly entangled with other students, then it is on to evaluating the level of English the student knows and comprehends. Each level is important however the first level is entering level developing to the bridging level, this level means that a student is ready to join a regular classroom because they have a complete understanding and can intellectual ability to the English Language for all students this is the main goal to reach.However if a student is not at this level with the help of educators to support and assistance of the assessments every student will be at bridging level as fast as they can. Using the ELP standards in addition to mixing them into a teachers daily routine is a requirement in the classrooms today. Teachers should always reminder that every student is different and learn in different ways, so teachers need to teach in different ways in order for the students to learn successfully principally while learning literacy skills in reading.When using data it can be a very useful tool when helping students, it can be responsible for a helping teacher to get a better understanding of what a student knows, what they need to work on, as well as what need to be worked on so they are able to reach their academic goals. This is a great to ol for teacher because it allow them to make knowledgeable choices that can help the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s goals in their educational career.Ã¢â¬Å"Although high stakes testing carries much of the weight for teachers there are possibilities to meet federal and stateÃ regulations by cautiously and consciously planning lesson that provide students with multiple opportunities to be successful and apply language in content contextÃ¢â¬ (GCU, 2012). For teachers to be able to do this they need to be better prepared at educating as well as supporting their states standards with ELP standards. Each lesson should be made that every student is given a chance to be successful. Being a teacher it is important to provide many opportunities for their students to be successful in their educational future. Alignment of Academic Standards with ELL Proficiency Standards The federal government has changed the ground work and the organization of scholastic lessons in the educational systems in 2001 with the Ã¢â¬Å"No Child Left behind ActÃ¢â¬ . The law say that each state is to embrace English Language Learners in the state assessment and evaluate the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s language skill Ã¢â¬Å"with valid, reliable assessments in the areas of oral language and reading and writing skills, more specifically comprehension, speaking, listing, reading, and writingÃ¢â¬ (Cook, 2007). The requirements of these assessment also include assisting in the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ accomplishment of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s academic achievement standards.Since the federal standards has been made to the educational system there needs to be a new method created and evaluated in the way that states and schools can continue adjusting and properly evaluating English Language Learners. The population of English Language Learners has made a tremendous growth in American, over the past fe w years the English Language Learners has grown more the twenty percent and is predictable to increase more with time. With the population growing in our educational system modifications had to be made.The laws specifies that all children who are disabled, donÃ¢â¬â¢t speak English, or disadvantaged still have an equal right to an education. For the reason of English Language Learner comprehensive span the United States wanted something that could adjust and help as a wide range obligation and or standard required to applied in the educational system, so with the No Child Left behind act allowed it to be done. Since the states have to follow and stand by assessment guidelines as well as academic standards with the No Child Left Behind act people ask exactly how the non- English students would fit into this law.Assessment must also be given with unlimited probability that a student will pass in the regular education curriculums, even though they definitely let each state establish t heir own specific procedures that met with these probability. The complicating part is it has to link using both state and government academic standards. The Arizona or TESOL English language learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ standards obligatory are to work independently as a state but then again they are also obligatory to follow and manage the governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements. This can be completed by correctly combining the English language learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ into groups.This act should only be used when placing the students into groups, by doing this allows for identify that level of each child, such as their comprehension level as well as how much they know about speaking, listing, reading, and written in English the language. There are many different levels that are personalized or tiered into separate classifications for the age varieties. Each group has requirements in addition to the complete outline and details to dimensions from, as well as the requirements that the government has and it d oes not matter which state you are in they are all the same.These standards are identified as English language Proficiency Standards (ELP). The English language Proficiency Standards come in many different segments beginning with the age, then finishing with separable accomplishment and understanding. To begin with the most important factor would be the stage of development of a child, the students need to be properly divided by their developing skill and accurateness in reasoning purposes. There are four different categories in the age group, first there is kindergarten to second, next third to fifth, following sixth to eight, last is ninth to twelfth.Once the correct stage of development has been recognized and properly entangled with other students, then it is on to evaluating the level of English the student knows and comprehends. Each level is important however the first level is entering level developing to the bridging level, this level means that a student is ready to join a regular classroom because they have a complete understanding and can intellectual ability to the English Language for all students this is the main goal to reach.However if a student is not at this level with the help of educators to support and assistance of the assessments every student will be at bridging level as fast as they can. Using the ELP standards in addition to mixing them into a teachers daily routine is a requirement in the classrooms today. Teachers should always reminder that every student is different and learn in different ways, so teachers need to teach in different ways in order for the students to learn successfully principally while learning literacy skills in reading.When using data it can be a very useful tool when helping students, it can be responsible for a helping teacher to get a better understanding of what a student knows, what they need to work on, as well as what need to be worked on so they are able to reach their academic goals. This is a great to ol for teacher because it allow them to make knowledgeable choices that can help the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s goals in their educational career.Ã¢â¬Å"Although high stakes testing carries much of the weight for teachers there are possibilities to meet federal and stateÃ regulations by cautiously and consciously planning lesson that provide students with multiple opportunities to be successful and apply language in content contextÃ¢â¬ (GCU, 2012). For teachers to be able to do this they need to be better prepared at educating as well as supporting their states standards with ELP standards. Each lesson should be made that every student is given a chance to be successful. Being a teacher it is important to provide many opportunities for their students to be successful in their educational future.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
BUSINESS ETHICS 2011 Report Sunderland Business School Undergraduate Programs Name: Lanny Chew Jun Kheong Identification Number: 880328-52-5707 Student ID: 109129662/1 Tel. Number: 016-8515159 E-mail: [emailÃ protected] com Study Centre: SEGi College Sarawak Module: Business Ethics Code: UGB210 Module Tutor: Ms. Adeline Academic Year: 2011 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report was produced as an audit report providing a Ã¢â¬ËsnapshotÃ¢â¬â¢ of KFCÃ¢â¬â¢s business ethics. First, the author started with the ethical dilemma of KFC which include poor quality products, animal abuse and poor working conditions.Identification of ethical dilemmas is important where people can know about the ugly truths that KFC was practicing. The report is followed with a discussion of the importance of the ethical dilemma of KFC and actions taken by KFC to solve the problems. Under this section the relevant theories such as utilitarianism, egoism, fairness are clearly explain with real examples in this repo rt. Although there are pros and cons, KFC has also practice best practices. This third section covered up a few values such as hope, love and caring that KFC is practicing by participating in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and established code of conduct.Even though action has been taken, it also cannot solve the dilemma. So, the author has offer recommendation for KFC as reference. This report was ended with a conclusion. CONTENT: PAGE: ASSIGNMENT TITLE PAGE i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ii CONTENT iii 1. 0 INTRODUCTION 1 1. 1COMPANY PROFILE 1 2. 0 ETHICAL DILEMMAS 2 . 1 POOR QUALITY PRODUCTS 2 2. 2 ANIMAL ABUSE 4 2. 3 POOR WORKING CONDITIONS 4 3. 0 IMPORTANCES OF THESE DILEMMAS AND ACTION TAKEN BY KFC 5 3. 1 PRODUCTSÃ¢â¬â¢ QUALITY IMPROVEMENT 5 3. 2 ANIMAL WELFARE ISSUES 7 3. 3 ESTABLISH UNION 9 4. 0 KFC BEST PRACTISES AND VALUES 11 4. 1 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) 11 4. 2 ESTABLISH SUPPLIER CODE OF CONDUCT 12 5. 0 RECOMMENDATION 13 5. 1 GO FOR ORGANIC 13 6. 0 CONCLUSION 14 APPENDIX 1 15 APPENDIX 2 21LIST OF REFERENCES 24 1. 0 INTRODUCTION This report was produced to analyze the business ethics of Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC). First, the report started with a brief description on the company background. Next, it is continued with identification of the ethical dilemmas Ã¢â¬â poor quality products, animal abuse and poor working condition of KFC, provided from stakeholder analysis and examples from their history. After that, the report moved on to the importance of the mentioned ethical dilemmas and how KFC is dealing with it. The actions taken are product quality improvement, animal welfare issues and establish union.This included the application of the various ethical theories. Then, it is continued with the good side of KFC when the analysis was done on KFC best practices and values that KFC are practicing. It included Corporate Social Value (CSR) where they offered Ã¢â¬ËProjek Penyayang KFCÃ¢â¬â¢ in Malaysia and ColonelÃ¢â¬â¢s Scholar Prog ram, practicing the value of hope and love; and established supplier code of conduct by practicing the value of justice. Further, the author put on suitable recommendations for KFC such as Go for Organic, with the hope that the plan recommended can help KFC in expanding their business towards a brighter future.Lastly, this report was closed up with a conclusion justifying the essentialness of business ethics. 1. 1 COMPANY BACKGROUND KFC, founded and also known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is a chain of fast food restaurants based in Louisville, Kentucky and is now one of the well-known fast food restaurants which operates in more than 11,000 branches in more than 80 nations and territories throughout the world. Examples are UK, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Kuwait, Spain and Barbados, Puerto Rico, Pakistan and many more.KFC started with Colonel Harland Sanders who grew up to become a personage the world known as Colonel Sanders throughout the years, discovered his penchant for cooking wh en he was only 9 years old. KFC is now regarded as the most chicken restaurant chain providing a special mouth watering taste fried chicken that cannot be replaced with chicken's natural juices sealed-in; leaving KFC with pride as a fast-food restaurant that provide customers with a selection of home-styled side dishes and desserts such as coleslaw and ice-creams to make a wholesome, complete and satisfying meal despite only serving great tasting chicken (http://www. fc. com). (Refer to Appendix I). 2. 0 ETHICAL DILEMMAS According to Lee Flamand (eHow, 2011), Ã¢â¬Å"an ethical dilemma is a situation wherein moral precepts or ethical obligations conflict in such a way that any possible resolution to the dilemma is morally intolerable. In other words, an ethical dilemma is any situation in which guiding moral principles cannot determine which course of action is right or wrong. Ã¢â¬ (http://www. eHow. com) The competition between fast food restaurants is increasing where KFC have t o come out with more choices of selection to meet the demand of their patrons.At the same time, they have to think of ways to make more sales, cut costs, and basically maximize the profits of the firms and faced many ethical dilemmas concerning their products and consumers during the process. The ethical dilemmas include poor quality products, animal abuse and poor working conditions. 2. 1 POOR QUALITY PRODUCTS David Ludwig (2009), director of a Boston childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s hospital said that Ã¢â¬Å"fast-food consumption has been shown to increase calorie intake, promote weight gain, and elevate risk for diabetesÃ¢â¬ (http://www. thenewwellness. com).Fast Food is usually unhealthy, andÃ can often leadÃ to loyal consumers having weight problems. This matter got worst to KFC where in year 2006, KFC was being sued for frying its chicken with cooking oils that contain Trans-fats, which can contribute to heart disease and diabetes. According to Mayo Clinic, trans fat is also called tr ans-fatty acids and assumed by some doctors to be the worst type of fat which both raises Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ (LDL) cholesterol and lowers Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ (HDL) cholesterol. A high LDL cholesterol level in combination with a low HDL cholesterol level increases the risk of getting heart disease (http://www. ayoclinic. com). Trans fat is bad that it boosts the risk of coronary disease and people should only consume no more than 2 g per day. However, KFC claimed its products Ã¢â¬Å"meet or exceed all government regulations. Ã¢â¬ But as the Center for Science in the Public Interest, the activist group behind the lawsuit, points out, a three-piece extra-crispy combo meal, which is called Ã¢â¬Ëdinner-plateÃ¢â¬â¢ in Malaysia, contains 15 g of trans fat which is more than a person should ingest (Time magazine, 2006).In China, some of the outlets in Xianyang city were being accused for using the same frying oil to fry chickens up to 10 days and this can cause cancer (http://www. chin adaily. com. cn). Furthermore, other examples such as: customers cut her tongue and mouth after plastic was been found when she consumed coleslaw, bloody bandage found under KFC baked beans, worms discover in sandwiches, children became sick after eating KFC in Colorado, proved that KFC poor quality products issue has achieving a very dangerous level (http://www. kfcmademesick. com/). Added on, some KFC outlets were even forced to pay compensation for injuries.Example: KFC in Plymouth has been fined $13,000 for selling raw chicken to their customers (http://www. dailyrecord. co. uk). In year 2009, KFC in central London faced food hygiene charges with the cases where countless sighting of cockroaches, mice, rats and flies flying ahead was found when an investigation was done in the city. The owner has been fined ? 20,000 and was asked for temporary shop closed down (http://www. caterersearch. com). 2. 2 ANIMAL ABUSE Since the late 1990s, KFC faced severe protests by People for Ethica l Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal rights protection organization.The improper breeding of birds combined with improper working conditions of workers and lack of ethically efficient operation processes led to improper practices in KFCÃ¢â¬â¢s supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s poultry farms. According to Donald G. McNeil Jr. who published his article in New York Times in 2004, Ã¢â¬Å"an animal rights group involved in a long legal dispute with KFC released a videotape showing slaughterhouse workers for one supplier jumping up and down on live chickens, drop-kicking them like footballs and slamming them into walls, apparently for funÃ¢â¬ .Furthermore, other acts of cruelty which include suffocating a chicken by tying a latex glove over its head, workers tearing beaks off, spitting tobacco juice into birds' mouths, ripping a bird's head off to write graffiti in blood, plucking feathers to Ã¢â¬Å"make it snow,Ã¢â¬ and squeezing birds like water balloons to spray feces over other birds were all saw by an under investigator who works for the company (http://www. thenazareneway. com). KFC suppliers even cram birds into huge waste-filled factories, breed and drug them to grow so large until the chicken could not even walk, and often break their wings and legs.The chickensÃ¢â¬â¢ throats were slit and they were dropped into tanks of scalding-hot waterÃ¢â¬âoften while they were still conscious during slaughtering process (http://www. kentuckyfriedcruelty. com/). As a result KFC was accused of animal abuseÃ by PETA, on the supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s farm. 2. 3 POOR WORKING CONDITIONS Poor working conditions is always an issue for KFC especially for the branches located in big countries such US, India and China. In US, workers in PilgrimÃ¢â¬â¢s Pride Poultry farm did animal abused action just to alleviate boredom or vent frustrations especially when so many chickens were coming in that they would have to work late (http://www. henazareneway. com). On the other hand, according to the city government of Guangzhou, China; effective from January 1 year 2006, the minimum wage for part-time labor set by local regulations is at 7. 5 Yuan per hour in big cities such as Guangzhou but KFC only paid them with 5. 5 Yuan. KFC were bombarded for this contract as it had violated the legal rights of employees. KFC allegedly force part-time employees to work the same hours as full-time staff but fail to pay them any of the benefits to which full-time staff are entitled.Adding on, employees who work more than five hours a day and 30 hours a week should be treated as full-time staff and receive the same fringe benefits according to the mainland laws. However, the Guangdong labor authority's clarification indicates that part-time working students are not protected by the law, which is a relief for the employers involved. It was extremely unfair for those part-timers (China Business, 2006). 3. 0 IMPORTANCES OF THESE DILEMMAS AND ACTION TAKEN BY KFC According to De George, R. T who has written in his book entitled Ã¢â¬ËBusiness Ethics (5th Edition) in year 1999, he declares that an ethical dilemma occurs when the choice is defined unclearly between alternative actions with moral content. Whether a specific behavior is right or wrong, ethical or unethical is often determined by the concerned stakeholders and an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personal ethics. As a result, values, judgments, and complex situations all play a critical role in ethical decision making. 3. 1 PRODUCTSÃ¢â¬â¢ QUALITY IMPROVEMENTThe reason KFC using trans oil at first because the food produced is much tastier. Trans oil which is introduced in 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, claims that it is suitable to substitute natural oil and healthy. It has better performances under high heat, longer shelf life and also it is cheaper (http://www. msnbc. msn. com). For example: The crispy fried chicken is resulted crispier when frying with trans oil. Here, it is very clear that KFC has a bad judgment in choosing the t ypes of oil to be used and caused them being sued on their judgment.KFC also react as activist stakeholder where by using trans oil which is cheaper, they believe their investment will giving them a good return in profit. In these new era with full of busyness and stressful lifestyle, so as dual-working families where both parents are forced to work to increase the income of a family, more and more people are fully dependent on quick meal solutions and most will opt for fast food. Fast food such as KFC is not only a fast food restaurant, but the brand- KFC and their products have highly encounter a place in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life as it really helps in saving a meal-preparation time.Although people start to be more health conscious of having good health and body figures, fast food especially KFC may cause obesity according to research. Health Organizations in most development countries such as U. S, and U. K, have started to encourage their citizens to concern more about their having healthy life by having nutritious meal. Since KFC started their operations and expanded their business globally, the Ã¢â¬Ëchicken-mealÃ¢â¬â¢ they offered, only gains a bad image and reputation of a fast food that provides greasy unhealthy food.Fast food has the potential to impact directly and visibly on people's well-being like obesity. With this case, KFC practice the theory of utilitarianism which is also called Ã¢â¬Ëthe greatest happiness principleÃ¢â¬â¢ where they have taken an action which results greatest amount of people receiving the greatest amount of good. So, KFC came out with Kentucky Grilled Chicken which is marinated with savory blend of secret herbs and slow-grilled to juicy perfection. This new product has fewer fat grams, fewer calories, and less sodium than original recipe chicken.Besides, all KFC chicken products practice Zero Grams Trans Fat per serving where they have found the perfect recipe by incorporating the ColonelÃ¢â¬â¢s 11 herbs and spices wi th a new cooking oil that contains zero grams of trans fat. Beside fried chicken, many others favorite KFC side dishes such as mashed potatoes and wages are now served with zero grams of trans fat (http://www. kfc. com). KFCÃ¢â¬â¢s new products and Zero Grams Trans Fat plans have help them to push up their brand where they tend to promote happiness through serving customers with nutrient food and it is also a better option for health-conscious customers.According to Brooks and Dunn (2009), Ã¢â¬ËThe ethically correct action is the one that will produce the greatest amount of pleasure or the least amount of pain. Ã¢â¬â¢ 3. 2 ANIMAL WELFARE ISSUES Since the case of animal abuse being explored to the world, KFC faced the toughest challenge in where it heated up the public awareness towards the animal welfare. People all around the world started to be concerned about this issue as KFC has their branches worldwide. Animal abuse case occurred huge ruckus by the public has caused the corporation to lose their image and their reputations are highly damaged because of the law stated by PETA.After the incident, stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations and demands regarding the standardized guidelines of animal treatment were also increased. The case not only affected the business all over the world, but also its brand (KFC) reputation, turnover and profit as KFC has their branches in most of the countries and hence, caused the significant impacts on the relationship between contemporary organization such as McDonald, Burger King, Wendy and Safe-way as they also afraid that KFC might drag them down, their shareholders such as the owners of each KFC branch restaurants and finally public opinion.Just like other fast food chain, KFC seems trying to minimize their budget and hence maximize their profits without considering their suppliers and customers instead they should put on priority on the importance of ethics. Suppliers just did what requested by KFC without thinking the ir negative impacts when requisition for chickenÃ¢â¬â¢s meat increased. Here, KFC react brilliantly where they did not run away from reality as several actions had been taken to overcome the problems and tried to make the issue Ã¢â¬â a Ã¢â¬ËlearningÃ¢â¬â¢ history for all.KFC took an immediate responds and developed a series of plan to overcome the problems and this action has become a trend for KFC in the future. When receiving a little pressure from PETA, KFC Canada agreed to a historic new animal welfare plan that they became the first major restaurant chain ever in whole world to purchase all of its meat exclusively from controlled-atmosphere killing (CAK) slaughterhouses and dramatically the lives and deaths of millions of chickens for Canada. http://www. thepoultrysite. com. ) CAK is a method of slaughtering poultry where chickens do not suffer when being removed from the crates,Ã hung upside down, shackled, bled, and scalded in defeathering tanks which leads to stru ggling, stress, and broken wings. The processes work the oxygen in the transport cages is replaced with other gasses such as carbon dioxide, argon or nitrogen to gently put them into Ã¢â¬Ësleeping modeÃ¢â¬â¢.The birds die from the lack of oxygen, and are dead before they are ever handled by slaughterhouse workers (http://animalrights. about. com/). Besides, there are no chances for workers to abuse the chicken as they never have to chance to handle live chickens in CAK. This process even provide with better results when workers do not need to struggle with flapping, scratching, vomiting, and defecating chickens, lights can be kept bright throughout the process and the air maintain at its cleanliness level (http://www. peta. org/).As stated clearly in KFC main website, all suppliers must comply with the KFC policy which is they are strictly not allowed to use hormones and steroids for any purposes, including improving growth in chickens due to the genetically engineered for faste r growth and antibiotics are strictly prohibited. To show their sincerity in transformation, KFC even formed the KFC Animal Welfare Advisory Council, which consists of highly regarded experts in the field who will provide information and advice based on relevant data and scientific research which has been a key factor in formulating their animal welfare program.To rebuild the public confidence towards KFC, the company allowed PETA to review its animal welfare audit forms every six months (http://www. kfc. com). 3. 3 ESTABLISH UNION Employees play one of the most important characters in the whole process. Without these people, KFC might not have such a huge success in their business until today. After the incident of underpaying their part-time workers inÃ Guangzhou, they set up trade union branches across the province.This incident has highly touched up people awareness to protect human rights especially in China when media from Shanghai, Taiyuan, Tianjin, Fuzhou and Beijing repor ted similar findings and have caused uproar across China. Furthermore, the unfair treatment to employees increased when labor officials in Shanghai claimed that they have not found any regulations in KFC outlets as the rules in Shanghai do not apply to part-time or to student.The unclear stipulations on the rights and benefits of part-time or student employees enable KFC to make use of the legal loopholes as all fast-food restaurants are profit-making enterprises that wish to earn more profits by taking advantage on their part-time employees. KFC practice the theory of egoism here as the company only care about themselves rather than considering about itsÃ¢â¬â¢ employees profits. Ã¢â¬Å"Cheating part-time workers is also a common practice in the US because companies take advantage of the fact that most part-timers are young, inexperienced and lack representation.These businesses should be required to adhere to the rules and regulations of the host country,Ã¢â¬ said TangXiaojing to China Daily in year 2007. This whole case also tells China and the world that people have to be aware of the unequal situation for laborers in China, and to wonder why the legislation is always so vulnerable (http://www. china. org. cn) In return, KFC claimed that they would took things seriously by looking forward into the situations and will approached the local trade union of the city for guidance of set up the trade union.KFC has applied the theories of fairness here where everyone has been free to receive rewards for their efforts, which is also known as procedural justice (Beauchamp ;amp; Bowie, 1997). The president of Yum Brands Inc promised that KFC will accept every statements ruling Chinese government makes over its alleged illegal exploitation of part-time staffs in China. And they would do whatever is requested by the trade union after they have concluded their investigations into the employment of KFCÃ¢â¬â¢s part-time workers.Besides, trade union in several cities in China will work together with local labor and social security departments to investigate the entire fast food restaurants in China which were suspected to have similar unlawful behavior to protect the rights of employees. With the cooperation between KFC and members of All China Federation of Trade Union to establish KFC own union, the author believes the cases of unfair treatment to employees will be lowered and KFC branches in China will be the model for other KFC in other countries (http://www. china. org. cn). 4. 0 KFC BEST PRACTISES AND VALUES 4. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) The brand KFC has been carved in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s heart as one of the best fried chicken restaurant and in return, KFC participated themselves in CSR as CSR is all about how a company manages the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society (http://www. mallenbaker. net) Ã¢â¬â Refer to Appendix II. KFC takes its CSR priority faithfully and makes a dedicated effort to fu lfill its tasks in every area including the community, education, diversity, market place, workplace, and animal welfare which is also benefiting to all including its stakeholders.CSR which is also claimed to be a marketing purpose is logically captured in the new definition of marketing answered by the American Marketing Association (2004) which stated Ã¢â¬Å"marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholdersÃ¢â¬ . KFC practiced the value of Hope and Love. In Malaysia, KFC Malaysia has set up Ã¢â¬ËProjek PenyayangÃ¢â¬â¢ as appreciation for greatly support by the Malaysian. Project PenyayangÃ¢â¬â¢ which was founded in 1995, was purposely developed to provide food to a total of 80 homes every quarter to enable thousands of orphans and underprivileged to enjoy KFC meals. With a heart of caring, KFC fulfill the hope of orphans who wished to have KFC. Ã¢â¬ËTabung Penyayang KFCÃ¢â¬â¢ which is a unique fund representing a percentage of revenue generated from sales of KFCÃ¢â¬â¢s KidsÃ¢â¬â¢ Fun Meals was set as a charity fund to help children and needy through various CSR Program. Adding on, all the programs also included donation, charity, and organize open house dinner particularly to those less fortunate, elderly and orphaned (http://www. fc. com. my). Caring is about wanting another person to succeed and do well in life and their career. With a heart of caring, KFC cares about students education. KFC create a fund Ã¢â¬â ColonelÃ¢â¬â¢s Scholars, offering scholarships for entrepreneurial drive and strong perseverance high school seniors who need financial helps to support their school fees in their study career. Students who are selected will received up to $ 20,000 to receive a bachelor degree program in the university the students have chosen inside their cities only (http ://www. kfcscholars. org/). 4. ESTABLISH SUPPLIER CODE OF CONDUCT KFC practice the value of justice where they protect the rights and punish the wrongs. Supplier code of conduct is established by KFC U. S. which is committed to protect all U. S. suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights by conducting its business towards legal, ethical and socially responsible manner. All KFC suppliers are required to follow and abide by all applicable laws, codes or regulations which includes not limited to any local, state or federal laws regarding wages and benefits, employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation, working hours, equal opportunity, worker and product safety.All suppliers are expected to confirm their practices to the published standards for their industry in order to get the contract to supply goods to KFC. Staffs of suppliers are protected in many areas where they must have safe and healthy working conditions and working schedules, non-discrimination occurs in industry, child labor issue where employees below 14 years old are strictly prohibited from working, forced and indentured labor and lastly notification to employees where notices of policies can be clearly explained to them.With addition, suppliers who are failed to follow the Code may cause them to disciplinary action which might include the termination of the Supplier relationship with KFC. KFC pay full respect to all the employees as they work for suppliers who supply chicken meats and goods for KFC who claimed to be working indirectly for KFC. 5. 0 RECOMMENDATION Marketing strategy used to be very important in a business as a well-planned marketing strategy helps a business to earn more profitability, well-known brand mark and loyalty from customers.As time goes by, marketing strategy cannot be dependent on just meeting the needs and demands of all stakeholders. KFC should now by right focus on how to deliver a better service and productsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality to customers as the brand Ã¢â¬â KFC has already been r ecognized by everyone in the world. 5. 1 GO FOR ORGANIC! Emphasizes should be done on consumer health, productsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality and social responsibility initiatives as people start conscious about having good health and enough nutrients. When people start going for organic, KFC should go for it too!Organic products and other ingredients are grown without the use of pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, genetically modified organisms, or ionizing radiation. Organic meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products are come from animals such as chickens and cows that do not take antibiotics or growth hormones (http://organic. org). Going for organic food products will increase the modal of production and it needs a long period of time for this huge transformation as there are few steps that have to be followed.According to USDA National Organic Program (NOP), a Government-approved certifier will inspect the farm where the food is grown to make sure the farmer is following all the r ules necessary to meet USDA organic standards before a product can be labeled Ã¢â¬Å"organic,Ã¢â¬ . Companies that handle or process organic food before it gets to your local supermarket or restaurant must be certified, tooÃ¢â¬â¢.On the other hand, it will be the hardest decision for KFC as they have to do surveys and further consideration whether the program is suitable for every KFC branches in the whole world as KFC have to reconsider about looking for new trustable suppliers that can continuously provide organic food and it is tough. KFC can always start slowly from the beginning by providing several choices from organic food such as organic salad, organic soya bean drink instead of carbonated flavored drinks, and mashed potatoes made from organic potatoes.If the program run with success, KFC will become the first ever fast food chain that provides organic food products and the author strongly believes that the strategic planning will surely increase the sales of KFC and gai ning more profit although KFC products will be sell at higher prices due to highly increased modal. 6. 0 CONCLUSION Conclusion, ethics is definitely necessary for a business to grow successfully, become more significant and more organized. A business can highly impact on the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and circumstances through providing jobs, life organization, creating wealth and inspiring others to grow their own business.Therefore, the business maybe ruined and leaves it with a bad reputation if an organization is not having a proper understanding on business ethics. From bad to good, KFC has gone through every hard time and now moving towards a better future when they finally overcome most of its ethical issues. People do make mistakes and learn from mistakes so as KFC. KFC will learn from their mistakes and make the mistakes to the power of change. The author strongly believe that KFC will do their best in meeting everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s need and KFC will become the first priority for eve ry human when they thinking of nice and tasty fried chicken.KFC Ã¢â¬â So Good! APPENDIX 1: KFC HISTORY and PRODUCTS KFC HISTORY-AT-A-GLANCE 9/9/1890 Harland Sanders is born just outside Henryville, Indiana. 1900-1924 Harland Sanders holds a variety of jobs including: farm hand, streetcar conductor, army private in Cuba, blacksmith's helper, railyard fireman, insurance salesman, tire salesman and service station operator for Standard Oil. 1930 In the midst of the depression, Harland Sanders opens his first restaurant in the small front room of a gas station in Corbin, Kentucky. Sanders serves as station operator, chief cook and cashier and names the dining area Ã¢â¬Å"Sanders Court & Cafe. 1936 Kentucky Governor Ruby Laffoon makes Harland Sanders an honorary Kentucky Colonel in recognition of his contributions to the state's cuisine. 1937 The Sanders Court ;amp; Cafe adds a motel and expands the restaurant to 142 seats. 1939 The Sanders Court ;amp; Cafe is first listed in Dunc an Hines' Ã¢â¬Å"Adventures in Good Eating. Ã¢â¬ Fire destroys The Sanders Court & Cafe, but it is rebuilt and reopened. The pressure cooker is introduced. Soon thereafter Colonel Sanders begins using it to fry his chicken to give customers fresh chicken, faster. 1940Birthdate of the Original Recipe 1949 Sanders marries Claudia Price. 1952 The Colonel begins actively franchising his chicken business by traveling from town to town and cooking batches of chicken for restaurant owners and employees. The Colonel awards Pete Harman of Salt Lake City with the first KFC franchise. A handshake agreement stipulates a payment of a nickel to Sanders for each chicken sold. 1955 An interstate highway is built to bypass Corbin, Kentucky. Sanders sells the service station on the same day that he receives his first social security check for $105.After paying debts owed, he is virtually broke. He decides to go on the road to sell his Secret Recipe to restaurants. 1957 Kentucky Fried Chicken f irst sold in buckets 1960 The Colonel's hard work on the road begins to pay off and there are 190 KFC franchisees and 400 franchise units in the U. S. and Canada. 1964 Kentucky Fried Chicken has more than 600 franchised outlets in the United States, Canada and the first overseas outlet, in England. Sanders sells his interest in the U. S. company for $2 million to a group of investors headed by John Y. Brown Jr. , future governor of Kentucky.The Colonel remains a public spokesman for the company. 1965 Colonel Sanders receives the Horatio Alger Award from the American Schools and Colleges Association. 1966 The Kentucky Fried Chicken Corporation goes public. 1969 The Kentucky Fried Chicken Corporation is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. 1971 More than 3,500 franchised and company-owned restaurants are in worldwide operation when Heublein Inc. acquires KFC Corporation. 1976 An independent survey ranks the Colonel as the world's second most recognizable celebrity. 1977 Colonel Sand ers speaks before a U. S.Congressional Committee on Aging. 1979 KFC cooks up 2. 7 billion pieces of chicken. There are approximately 6,000 KFC restaurants worldwide with sales of more than $2 billion. 12/16/1980 Colonel Harland Sanders, who came to symbolize quality in the food industry, dies after being stricken with leukemia. Flags on all Kentucky state buildings fly at half-staff for four days. 1982 Kentucky Fried Chicken becomes a subsidiary of R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc. (now RJR Nabisco, Inc. ) when Heublein, Inc. is acquired by Reynolds. 1986 PepsiCo, Inc. acquires KFC from RJR Nabisco, Inc. 1997 PepsiCo, Inc. nnounces the spin-off of its quick service restaurants Ã¢â¬â KFC, Taco Bell and Pizza Hut Ã¢â¬â into Tricon Global Restaurants, Inc. 2002 Tricon Global Restaurants, Inc. , the world's largest restaurant company, changes its corporate name to YUM! Brands, Inc. In addition to KFC, the company owns A;amp;WÃ ® All-American FoodÃ ® Restaurants, Long John SilversÃ ®, Pizza HutÃ ® and Taco BellÃ ® restaurants. 2006 More than a billion of the Colonel's Ã¢â¬Å"finger lickin' goodÃ¢â¬ chicken dinners are served annually in more than 80 countries and territories around the world. 2007 KFC proudly introduces a new recipe that keeps the Colonel's 11 herbs and pices and finger-lickin' flavor, but contains Zero Grams of Trans Fat per serving thanks to new cooking oil. 2008 The Colonel has a new look! KFC updates one of the most recognized, respected and beloved brand icons with a new logo. The new logo depicts Colonel Sanders with his signature string tie, but for the first time, replaces his classic white, double-breasted suit with a red apron. The apron symbolizes the home-style culinary heritage of the brand and reminds customers that KFC is always in the kitchen cooking delicious, high-quality, freshly prepared chicken by hand, just the way Colonel Sanders did 50 years ago. 009 KFC introduces Kentucky Grilled ChickenÃ¢â ¢ Ã¢â¬â a bette r-for-you option for health conscious consumers who love the flavor of KFC. Kentucky Grilled Chicken has less calories, fat and sodium than KFCÃ¢â¬â¢s Original RecipeÃ ® chicken, without sacrificing the great taste of KFC. APPENDIX 2: Corporate social responsibility Ã¢â¬â What does it mean? By Mallen Baker: First published 8 Jun 2004 One of the most frequently asked questions at this site Ã¢â¬â and probably for all those individuals and organizations dealing with CSR issues is the obvious Ã¢â¬â just what does Ã¢â¬ËCorporate Social Responsibility' mean anyway?Is it a stalking horse for an anti-corporate agenda? Something which, like original sin, you can never escape? Or what? Different organizations have framed different definitions Ã¢â¬â although there is considerable common ground between them. My own definition is thatÃ CSR is about how companies manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society. Take the following illustration: Com panies need to answer to two aspects of their operations. 1. The quality of their management Ã¢â¬â both in terms of people and processes (the inner circle). 2.The nature of, and quantity of their impact on society in the various areas. Outside stakeholders are taking an increasing interest in the activity of the company. Most look to the outer circle Ã¢â¬â what the company has actually done, good or bad, in terms of its products and services, in terms of its impact on the environment and on local communities, or in how it treats and develops its workforce. Out of the various stakeholders, it is financial analysts who are predominantly focused Ã¢â¬â as well as past financial performance Ã¢â¬â on quality of management as an indicator of likely future performance.Other definitions The World Business Council for Sustainable Development in its publication Making Good Business SenseÃ by Lord Holme and Richard Watts, used the following definition. Ã¢â¬Å"Corporate Social Resp onsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at largeÃ¢â¬ The same report gave some evidence of the different perceptions of what this should mean from a number of different societies across the world.Definitions as different asÃ CSR is about capacity building for sustainable livelihoods. It respects cultural differences and finds the business opportunities in building the skills of employees, the community and the governmentÃ from Ghana, through toÃ CSR is about business giving back to societyÃ from the Philippines. Traditionally in the United States, CSR has been defined much more in terms of a philanthropic model. Companies make profits, unhindered except by fulfilling their duty to pay taxes. Then they donate a certain share of the profits to charitable causes.It is seen as tainting the act for the company to receive any benefit from the giving. The European model is much more focused on operating the core business in a socially responsible way, complemented by investment in communities for solid business case reasons. Personally, I believe this model is more sustainable because: 1. Social responsibility becomes an integral part of the wealth creation process Ã¢â¬â which if managed properly should enhance the competitiveness of business and maximize the value of wealth creation to society. 2.When times get hard, there is the incentive to practice CSR more and better Ã¢â¬â if it is a philanthropic exercise which is peripheral to the main business, it will always be the first thing to go when push comes to shove. But as with any process based on the collective activities of communities of human beings (as companies are) there is no Ã¢â¬Ëone size fits all'. In different countries, there will be different priorities, and values that will shape how business act. And even the observations above are changing over time. The US has growing numbers of people looking towards core business issues.For instance, the CSR definition used by Business for Social Responsibility is: Ã¢â¬Å"Operating a business in a manner that meets or exceeds the ethical, legal, commercial and public expectations that society has of business. Ã¢â¬ On the other hand, the European Commission hedges its bets with two definitions wrapped into one: Ã¢â¬Å"A concept whereby companies decide voluntarily to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment. A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. Ã¢â¬ When you review each of these, they broadly agree that the definition now focuses on the impact of how you manage your core business. Some go further than others in prescribing how far companies go beyond managing their own impact into the terrain of acting specifically outside of that focus to make a contribution to the achievement of broader societal goals. It is a key difference, when many business leaders feel that their companies are ill equipped to pursue broader societal goals, and activists argue that companies have no democratic legitimacy to take such roles. That particular debate will continue.LIST OF REFERENCES: [Book]: Crane, A. and Matten, D. 2007,Ã Business Ethics:Ã Managing Corporate Citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press Inc. , New York, accessed on 15th December 2009, available. [Book]: Frederick R. E. , A Companion To Business Ethics Wiley-Blackwell, August 9 2002, accessed on 15th December 2009, available. [Book]: J. Brooks, L. & Dunn, P. (2009), Business & Professional Ethics for Directors, Executive & Accountants 5thÃ edition, Cengage Learning (2009), accessed on 12th December 2009, available. Book]: Managing informatio n technology in a global environment:Ã 2001 Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 20-23, 2001, accessed on 11th December 2009, available. [Online]: http://animalethics. blogspot. com/2009/10/h-b-acton-1908-1974-on-animal-rights. html, accessed on 9th December 2009, available. [Online]: http://animalrights. about. com/od/animalsusedforfood/f/Controlled-Atmosphere-Killing-What-Is-Controlled-Atmosphere-Killing. htm, accessed on 11th December 2009, available. [Online]: http://www. atimes. om/atimes/China_Business/ID20Cb02. html, accessed on 11th December 2009, available. [Online]: http://www. caterersearch. com/Articles/29/10/2009/330646/Leicester-Square-KFC-faces-13-food-hygiene-charges. htm, accessed on 15thDecember 2009, available. [Online]: http://www. china. org. cn/english/China/206787. htm, accessed on 10th December 2009, available. [Online]: http://www. china. org. cn/english/China/206640. htm, accessed on 10th Dec ember 2009, available. [Online]: http://www. china. org. cn/english/BAT/205948. htm, accessed on 10th December 2009, available. [Online]: http://www. hina. org. cn/english/China/208113. htm, accessed on 10th December 2009, available. [Online]: http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/china/2007-03/09/content_823985. htm, accessed on 14th December 2009, available. [Online]: http://www. darkztar. com/forum/showthread. php? 52669-The-ethical-dilemmas-of-fast-food-industries, accessed on 7th December 2009, available. [Online]: http://www. ehow. com/about_5481837_ethical-dilemma_. html#ixzz1f0HrybvU, accessed on 8th December 2009, available. [Online]: http://edwardkhoo. com/kentucky-fried-chicken-kfc-animal-cruelty/, accessed
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Case Study - Essay Example Despite serious social movement of the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender) community in recent decades, the minority of people are still fighting for equality. And in this fight corporations are extremely important in terms of the LGBT community acknowledgement because they can provide their employees with decent support and do it more profoundly than country and local authorities (LGTB Manual, 2010). There are few companies that are able to risk their reputation, unless their reputation is so immaculate, and make such a contradictory issue as accepting non-traditional sexual orientation of the employees in company`s policy. Such companies receive unnecessary attention and their public relations sphere is suffering. In such a situation Disney, the company specializing on the children`s entertainment content and supporting homosexuality acknowledgment at working places looks absolutely extraordinary (Tully, 2013). However, Disney was and remains such company, and despite its worldwide success it is being accused of promoting immoral values to future generation. Reasonably it raises a lot of questions regarding the place of homosexuality propaganda in a corporate world and especially in children`s content. However, Disney manages to communicate to the world that their policy is grounded on higher values such as equality, acceptance, and diversity, and sticking to these goals can se rve as the most important factor. Moreover, Disney`s internal policy of visibility is coherent with its external representation which proves that the company has well-elaborated policy and know what image to create in consumers` perception. Disney was established in 1923 by two brothers, Walter and Roy Disneys, as a small cartoon studio in California. Today this multinational corporation is one of the biggest Hollywood studios and is the owner of 11 theme parks around the planet, two aqua parks, and several broadcasting companies. The company`s main product was
MOD4 - Essay Example This results in confounded data since different people view the employee under assessment differently. If such feedback were to be classified, the peers would be classified differently, the bosses, and the other colleagues too. Under each group there people with similar ideas about the individual being assessed, there are those with different opinions, and there are those who may have nothing to say. These people may also be influenced by various factors. This is the source of confusion that is brought about by this method. Inaccuracy: Information is obtained from various people, some of whom do not have adequate opportunity to see an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour in all aspects. Accuracy of such kind of information is therefore, suspect. Difficulty in interpretation: it is indicated that with this kind of assessment, people find it difficult to transform information into proper action, or to interpret facts about their own performance. No, different circumstances face healthcare professionals and these cannot be used to judge their behaviour. There is the risk of complexity in the kind of data produced. Feedback providers may not provide accurate information depending on the situation they were in, for example emergency situations, and the feedback may be discouraging (Tosti & Addison, 2009). A skills gap is a situation where an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities demands skills that cannot be provided by its current employees. Skills gap exist because; the level of education does not match what the nations need, and more jobs are changing in terms of technology, knowledge, and teamwork requirements (Galagan, 2010). Reasons that account for skill gaps are; change in organizational strategies, effects of mergers and acquisitions, company leadership ranksÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of bench strength, and reduced investments allocated for training. The leading cause of skill gaps was lack of qualified
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Multi agency - Essay Example The studies try to create a link between multi-profession and terms such as multi-disciplinary, multi-agency, inter-professional, inter-agency, and working together. A detailed analysis by Bach concluded that multi-professionalism deals with a wider group, where as inter-professionalism deals with two professional groups working together (Bach , 2011). Another study by Walshe defined multi-professionalism as a practice that involves professional groups, but does not include collaboration(Walshe, 2006). For instance, doctors may agree with a patient on an intervention, but each doctor works separately to provide the intervention agreed. Bach argues that multi-professionalism is working across boundaries to meet the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs (Bach 2009). The term multi-agency is very common in social care settings. Multi-agency describes multi-professionalism with involvement of services such as education, housing, and housing workers all working together to provide services for an individual. However, the service receiver and provider will also be part of multi-agency work, and studies call this partnering working(Alder, 2011). From the above discussions, it is evident there are a number of terms that define multi-professional working. However, all the terms mean the same thing. The term multi-professional working is often used in literatures because the most important elements of multi-professional practice activity are collaboration and teamwork, which are crucial in delivering services(Alder, 2011). There are many factors that influence the growth of multi-profession practice. The paper will cover various drivers for multi-professional practice. The most influential driver is the government because it allocates the funds that make multi-profession practices policies happen. There are reasons why people work together Most government policies always protect the vulnerable people. There is
Monday, August 26, 2019
Globalisation , the World Economy and MNEs - Essay Example With increased competition, changing customers and ever changing technology, the fundamental part of RIMÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy was to expand the global reach of the Blackberry (Gillete et. al. 2013). RIM had the following options for expansion: RIM needed to further increase its core R&D activities. RIM already had a very successful local hiring strategy in place for this. Continuing with the same and increasing the magnitude would have fit with its existing approach and was also less risky. However, in order to be a global player, it had to look for talent worldwide. Having the same source supplier for new talent would have its limitations. One way was to expand Co-op programs at Waterloo to other universities and to hire more aggressively. The bond between Waterloo and RIM was loyal and reiterating the same loyalty with the other universities could yield desired results. Like other players in the industry RIM posted job openings online but with huge job applications mapping a right candidate to the right team was a tough job. Also, the competitors had a better hiring and on boarding process. RIM lacked a formal system of managing candidates. It needed to come up with an advanced system such as Global Scouting Platform of Microsoft to find the best talent worldwide. RIM had started expanding R&D and development centers at various locations and had the option to add more locations. However, the locations had to be strategic and the cost of resources had also to be taken into account. While expanding RIM had certain selection criteria while choosing new product and development sites such as having talented individuals, universities with strong technical programs and preferred base of software and hardware companies. However, the decentralization could lead to increased bureaucracy and add to management costs of the company. In past RIM had done some acquisitions which were
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Neo Pets - Case Study Example How do you think Neopets can prevent its concept from becoming a fad? Most of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s products will last only for a short period in the particular market, thereafter they will be out of the market or in other words, they will become the fad. That is it will be a temporary trend to use a particular product. There are some childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s products like Ninja turtles and Hula Hoops which did not run for a long period. In this era, there is an increase in the number of people who are interested in playing games, particular males in the age group of around 20. So the company should consider the adults also while designing the games so that it can be there in the market for a long period. Though Neopets was started as an online gaming solution, later it started its offline operation also. (Chapter 16, Marketing globally). The company is having a business strategy, which can be changed as and when required and ensures that its products are not becoming the fad. And also the customers or the users should not get bored with the product. If so the product will soon become the fad. Ã¢â¬Å"A lot of goods do not become the fad because they maintain their usefulness for longer periods of time, and people tend not to become bored with them.Ã¢â¬ (Bergman, (n.d). It is a commonly known business fact that, the mouth-to-mouth advertisement by the satisfied customers is the best and inexpensive advertisement. Even then, the organization can test other methods of advertising. Advertising on the internet will have more response. The internet usage among the adults has increased, so the company can give advertisement about their products on the internet rather than in television. The company can also place advertisements in front of the primary and secondary schools. That will attract the students to Neopets. And also, it can conduct marketing campaigns exclusively targeting the children.Ã
Saturday, August 24, 2019
People and organisations - Essay Example They were based on TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific management processes which emphasised close supervision. However, more advanced studies such as the Hawthorne studies found out that specialisation created boredom, low productivity and high turnover. Furthermore, modern organisations operate in a global competitive climate which requires them to be flexible enough to adapt quickly to changes. As such, modern organisations now rely on contingency factors to structure organisations and teamwork to motivate workers. The organisation culture also plays an important role in defining how employees experience their work and how organisations are operated. The paper will discuss how two organisations differ in the way they are operated and how people experience work. This will be achieved by looking at their approaches to teamwork and teamworking, approaches to organisation structure and design, and the organisation cultures. Biogenia plc is a world-leading business dealing with crop-protection products (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides) with 15000 employees in over 80 countries and has manufacturing facilities in 10 countries. Its activities are grouped into four functional areas but employees also work in cross-functional teams. The company is driven by innovation and employs highly qualified employees from diverse backgrounds. It also offers room for development through training courses and sponsoring education. It is also engaged in community activities by offering sponsorship. Sleepeasy Hotels on the other hand, is a mid-market hotel chain offering services to traveller and city-break tourists. Each hotel is headed by a manager who is responsible to the head office and manages day-to-day activities of the hotel. All the hotels perform similar functions such as reception, bar tending, room-cleaning, and cooking according to standard procedures and routines. Each manager recruits employees with assistance of central Human Resource function; some room-cleaners ar e permanent while others work part-time. The chain has a culture of performance management and review and disciplinary procedures. Approaches to Teamwork and Teamworking According to Forsyth (2009 p. 351), Ã¢â¬Å"teams are groups but not all groups are teams.Ã¢â¬ Some organisations work as a group to accomplish organisational goals while others form teams for specific purposes which are aimed at accomplishing the organisational goals. He points out the difference between groups and teams in that, teams require more collaboration and coordination in addition to having multiple members, interdependence and sharing of collective goals (p. 352). Each member is also assumed to possess unique knowledge, skills and abilities that he/she contributes to the effectiveness of the team. Classical organisations stressed individual work hence complex division of labour and specialisation but contemporary organisations have realised the need to utilize teamwork to achieve goals as well as trans mission of skills and knowledge between individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ hence organisational learning and increased motivation. Sleepeasy is an example of a classical organisation as each employee is responsible for his/her work which is monitored closely by a supervisor. The room-cleaning employees are supposed to attend 4 rooms in an hour failure to which disciplinary action is taken. For Biogenia, even though workers belong to a functional area they also belong to a cross-functional team. As observed by Forsyth (2009) teams come in different forms and perform different functions depending on organisational needs. Cross-functional or project teams comprise of members from different functional areas or departments, have different backgrounds and areas of expertise. These teams may
Friday, August 23, 2019
Human Resource Management Term Paper - Essay Example While employees may be dismissed on the grounds of downsizing the organization mostly due to constant loss making, most instances incorporate employees being terminated due to poor performance as well as neglect of their duties (Bernardin 218). The correct termination procedure for a poorly performing employee would involve communication to ensure that the subject individual is well aware of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s rules and what is expected of them. In the instance where the employee performs poorly and comes to work late, then the manager should inform them on that issue in a timely manner. This ensures that if it comes to the point that the employee is dismissed, then they do not argue that they were not aware of poor performance. Besides arriving to work late, if the employee does not fulfill the duties that have been entrusted on them by the organization without acceptable reasons such as not having been trained adequately to undertake those specific tasks, then the subject in dividual is eligible for termination. However, they should be warned regarding their wanting performance where if they do not improve, chances of dismissal increase. Some employees take unreasonably long breaks, which affects the performance of the organization. Such reasons may lead the manager to contemplate terminating the subject individual where they assess all required information for justified termination. The description of a bad employee in an organization that decided to terminate them meets the mentioned shortcomings ranging from arriving to work late and not fulfilling their duties to taking perversely long breaks. When the manager decided to terminate the individual, there were certain questions that they had to answer so as to be justified on pushing forward with the identified decision. First, the manager determined whether they had enough grounds to terminate the employee. Grounds may be given in
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Ethical Considerations Essay The conduct of the members of any profession must be of very high standards in professional terms. The Australian Computer Society (ACS) requires very high standards in its Code of Conduct for members so as to be able to earn the credibility as well as the prestige IT professionals deserve. The ACS Code of Conduct does not include many detailed rules as it only focuses on the most essential matters and as such it requires a much broader interpretation. It is mandatory for all members of ACS to comply with the Code of Conduct. The code bears relevance in law in terms of legislation. Awareness of the CodeÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements by IT professionals is crucial as non-adherence by a member in their field may lead to claims of professional negligence by clients. The regulatory regime of the Internet Censorship Body of Australia gives powers to its subsidiary, the Australian Communications and Media Authority to enforce restriction of Internet Content that is hosted within the country as well as maintaining a black-list of foreign websites by using filtering software. Foreign websites which have or are likely to be refused classification in Australia are target for mandatory filtering in Internet Censorship proposal by the Australian Labor Party-led government since 2008. The import of this proposal is that providers of internet services would be forced to ensure that they block black-listed websites from reaching its customers. Two years later, the policy still awaits enactment as a result of the inexistence of legislation to this effect (Moses 2010). As expected, the proposal for the introduction of mandatory filtering has been met with considerable opposition. Some amount of tension has been generated in Australia. Its opponents have raised various concerns but a few people who are in strong support of the policy welcomed it. In Australia, Internet content is bound by federal as well as state laws on the censorship of internet content. The ACS has an internet filtering body coupled with a taskforce for E-security. The task force provides advice on technical issues and policies concerning internet content and the material that is unsuitable for the viewing by the general society. This provides the basis for the legislation on internet content in Australia. The decision by the Australian government through information minister Senator Stephen Conroy to filter the pages viewed by internet users is consistent with the requirements of the Australian Computer Society (ACS) Code of Conduct and Ethics. The ethical code, in section 4. 1, starts by clearly stating its efforts aimed at advancing the dignity, honor a swell as the effectiveness Information Technology as a profession. It states that in observance of its ethical conduct and high competence standards, every member is supposed to be honest in addition to being forthright and impartial. Members are supposed to be loyal in their service to the community (ACS Code of Ethics 1998). It further states that every member has to put all efforts aimed at increasing the professionÃ¢â¬â¢s competence as well its prestige. Every member is required to use the special skill and knowledge they possess towards advancing human welfare. The code of conduct is binding in its requirements. Section NR 4. 3 and section N4. 4 categorically states that the code binds all members with regard to their professional conduct. The implication of this requirement is that once the legislation for the filtering scheme is enacted, all members will have no option other than to oblige. It will automatically take effect because it is backed by both the federal and the state government. This is good news to many parents and school teachers who have always battled delinquent behavior in learners without success. Foreign and unacceptable behaviors on some web pages have been accessed and acquired by minors who are otherwise not supposed to view them and as a result the parents and teachers have been unable to control them (Computerworld Australia 2008). Learning is seriously compromised by the content of these offending websites and filtering them is the only effective solution to ensure that it does not reach the school children. The are some specific internet contents which the government has already outlawed and indeed does filtering. These are the contents that have to do with political parties, euthanasia, video games and racism. On the ethical side of consideration on the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to filter the content that the public should be allowed to view, this is actually a move in the right direction because left uncontrolled, the public can view anything, just about everything. This automatically leads to moral rot. The advent of the internet has led to a sudden decline in morals in many societies globally and the Australian government is justified in suggesting an ambitious plan to ensure that internet content that is hosted within the country is restricted. It is upon the realization of the dangers posed by overseas websites, more than anything else, that the proposals read out by the information minister were made. It will be of no benefit for the Australian Communications and Media Authority to enforce a restriction on internet content that is hosted from within the country and leave content from outside unchecked as people can always view the pages that thrill them from the foreign websites (The Sydney Morning Herald 2009. It is not surprising that the proposal for mandatory filtering of all internet content whether local or from overseas has been met with mixed reactions (ABC News 2007). The proponents of the filtering of internet content are genuinely concerned that the benefits that these internet pages have are by far outweighed by the harm they bring upon the community, not only in Australia, but in all other countries in the world. The minister was justified in bringing the filtering proposals in his genuine concern to rid the society of the moral rot that, courtesy of unrestricted internet access, has been spreading like the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s infamous bush fires. The opponents of the proposed legislation on mandatory filtering of both locally hosted and overseas internet pages are on their part justified to object to these requirements in such loud voices as they have. Their objection to this legislation is by a very big percentage motivated by their selfish interest to continue being in the market for all the wrong reasons. Any person or a group of people in business are motivated by the sole interest of making as much profit as they can and as such what they give to their viewers does not matter as much as the profit they stand to get out of it. It gets even worse because they are prepared to go out of their way to give their viewers anything that they view most, bad as it may be (The Digital Liberty Coalition 2008). The ACS code of conduct and ethics in 4. 3 stipulates the values and ideals expected of the members. Members are expected to be professionally responsible and display integrity in their actions. They are supposed to deal with clients and the community, students and employees in a responsible way and with integrity. This requirement is good in terms of ethics and it can minimize the number of obscene and violent web content if adhered to by all internet providers. The general society needs to be protected from some pages whose influence is negative to the society. Section 4. 3. 4 further binds the members of ACS by ensuring social responsibility in their work to the society. It states that all members should make it their duty to ensure that they uplift and improve their clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality of life. This is a big calling but it must be adherered to in order to preserve and improve the lives of all the people they work for. It is unethical for any IT specialist to upload a morally corrupting page on the internet to be viewed by others who would otherwise do a lot better without it. The proposal by the information minister borrows mainly from the ACS code of conduct as it spells out clearly all the rules that IT professionals should follow so that they can preserve the prestige and dignity the profession is supposed to have. This is in section 4. 3. 5 under Information Technology Profession in which every member is expected to promote the integrity of their profession. The members must do their work in respect of the profession and for one another. Section 4. 5. 1 of the ethics code makes it mandatory for all members to preserve continuity in the services of information technology as well as to put information flow in their care. This clearly means that all members are bound by the requirement to strive to ensure that the consumers of their services get only what they are supposed to get. They must give only the useful information to the general public which constitutes their client base. Material that has been refused classification by the regulatory authority should not be uploaded because of the dangers it portents (Electronic Frontiers Australia 2008). The IT profession is a beneficiary of such a move as proposed by the information minister as it would regain its name as a respectable profession and people would have more respect for IT professionals which has of late been declining due to the actions of some unscrupulous IT specialists who have made it their habit to posting pages whose content can not do any good to the society (ABC News 2007). The general society as a whole will be the overall winners from this legislation to the detriment of those who have made it their business by sending to the innocent viewers corruptible web content. The hands of the IT professionals who may harbor ill motives are tied by clause number 4. 6. 5 which clearly states that all members of ACS must bear the responsibility of their work. If any of them posts a page that is in the opinion of the ACS disciplinary board; immoral or unsuitable for viewing by the general public, then their conduct shall be found to be unethical and the appropriate disciplinary action will be carried out on them.