Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Haitis Slave Rebellion Prompted the Louisiana Purchase A slave rebellion in Haiti helped the United States double in size at the beginning of the 19th century. The uprising in what was a French colony at the time had an unexpected repercussion when the leaders of France decided to abandon plans for an empire in the Americas. With Frances profound change of plans, the French decided to sell an enormous parcel of land, the Louisiana Purchase, to the United States in 1803.Ã Haitis Slave Rebellion In the 1790s the nation of Haiti was known as Saint Domingue, and it was a colony of France. Producing coffee, sugar, and indigo, Saint Domingue was a very profitable colony, but at considerable cost in human suffering. The majority of people in the colony were slaves brought from Africa, and many of them were literally worked to death within years of arriving in the Carribean. A slave rebellion, which broke out in 1791, gained momentum and was largely successful. In the mid-1790s the British, who were at war with France, invaded and seized the colony, and an army of former slaves eventually drove out the British. The leader of the former slaves, Toussaint lOuverture, established relations with the United States and Britain, and Saint Domingue was essentially an independent nation. The French Sought to Reclaim Saint Domingue The French, in time, chose to reclaim their colony, and Napoleon Bonaparte dispatched a military expedition of 20,000 men to Saint Domingue. Toussaint lOuverture was taken prisoner and jailed in France, where he died. The French invasion ultimately failed. Military defeats and an outbreak of yellow fever doomed Frances attempts to retake the colony. The new leader of the slave revolt, Jean Jacque Dessalines, declared Saint Domingue to be an independent nation on January 1, 1804. The nations new name was Haiti, in honor of a native tribe. Thomas Jefferson Had Wanted to Buy the City of New Orleans While the French were in the process of losing their grip on Saint Domingue, President Thomas Jefferson was trying to purchase the city of New Orleans from the French, who claimed much of the land west of the Mississippi River. Napoleon Bonaparte had been interested in Jeffersons offer to purchase the seaport at the mouth of the Mississippi. But the loss of the Frances most profitable colony made Napoleons government begin to think it wasnt worth holding on to the vast tract of land that is now the American Midwest. When Frances finance minister suggested that Napoleon should offer to sell Jefferson all the French holdings west of the Mississippi, the emperor agreed. And so Thomas Jefferson, who had been interested in buying a city, was offered the chance to buy enough land that the United States would instantly double in size. Jefferson made all the necessary arrangements, got approval from Congress, and in 1803 the United States bought the Louisiana Purchase. The actual transfer took place on December 20, 1803. The French had other reasons to sell the Louisiana Purchase besides their loss of Saint Domingue. One major concern was that the British, invading from Canada, could eventually seize all the territory anyway. But it is fair to say that France would not have been prompted to sell the land to the United States when they did had they not lost their prized colony of Saint Domingue. The Louisiana Purchase, of course, contributed enormously to the westward expansion of the United States and the era of Manifest Destiny. Haitis Chronic Poverty Is Rooted in the 19th Century Incidentally, the French, in the 1820s, did try once again to take back Haiti. France did not reclaim the colony, but it did force the small nation of Haiti to pay reparations for land which French citizens had forfeited during the rebellion. Those payments, with interest added, crippled the Haitian economy throughout the 19th century, meaning that Haiti was never able to develop as a nation. To this day Haiti is the most impoverished nation in the Western Hemisphere, and the countrys very troubled financial history is rooted in the payments it was making to France going back to the 19th century.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
10 Easy Ways for Students to Raise Their FICO Score Why Students Need a Good FICO Score A FICO score is a type of credit score that is calculated with software from Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO).Ã Having a good FICO score is very important if you want to get approved for fair interest rates on private student loans, credit cards, and other sources of credit. FICO scores cant be improved overnight, but there areÃ 10 easy steps that students can take to raise their FICO score Step 1: Establish New Accounts If you want to establish credit or raise your FICO score, you can get a credit card in your name and use it responsibly. This means charging regularly and paying the balances off regularly as well. If possible, get a card with a high limit and always keep the card balance below 25 percent. Step 2: Piggyback on Another Account If a parent or some other responsible individual is willing to add your name to their credit card account, it might help your credit and boost your FICO score. Every time this person charges and makes payments on the account it will look good for you. Read more about the legality of piggybacking. Step 3: Get Secured Debt If you are having difficulty getting approved for a regular credit card, try getting a secured credit card. These cards are perfect for those who have poor credit because they allow you to make charges that can be covered by money you have already applied to an account. There is no way for you to overcharge or miss payments. Eventually, use of the card will increase your FICO score. Step 4: Dont Apply for Too Much Credit If you have a flurry of credit inquiries on your credit history because you applied for 10 different credit cards and 5 different loans in a three-month period, it can lower your FICO score. If you can, try to limit yourself to two inquires each year. Step 5: Increase Your Current Card Limits The lower your balances are on your credit cards in comparison to the limit of your credit cards, the better your credit report will look and the higher your FICO score will be. If getting the balances paid down is proving to be a problem, or even if its not, contact your creditors and ask for a higher limit. Step 6: Pay Off Old Accounts If you have old, unpaid debts on your credit report, it can really drag your FICO score down. One of the best ways to undo the damage that has been done is to pay off old accounts and make arrangements with the creditors to have the judgments removed. Step 7: Dont Close Old Accounts Even if they are unused, old creditÃ accounts attribute to your length of credit history and affect your score. The longer you have an account, the better it looks. Closing old accounts can lower your FICO score even further. Step 8: Always Pay Bills On Time Not paying your bills on time is a sure-fire way to lower your FICO score. Each late payment can lower your score by as much as 20 points. In contrast, paying your bills on time consistently can raise your FICO score. Step 9: Lower Your Debt Having a significant amount of outstanding debt, such as student loans, cars loans, and other types of installment loans, can lower your debt-to-income ratio and in turn, your FICO score. If you can lower your debt; your FICO score will begin to rise at a fast pace. Step 10: Get Help If you are having a hard time managing your credit and raising your FICO score to an acceptable level, consider getting professional help through a low-cost or no-cost credit counseling service.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Advantages and Disadvantages of International Economic Institutions - Research Paper Example This research will begin with the statement that global economic institutions aim to understand the dilemmas and opportunities faced by several economies of the world. Through their formal chain of command system and global applicability, these institutions facilitate economic actions that are aimed to achieve progress and development. Some of the key institutions in the world are WTO, IMF and World BankÃ (Mole) There are many economic institutions in the world. According to EDIRC there are currently 12,542 institutions in 231 countries and territories mentioned. Many of these economic institutions came into existence after the world war. They were basically founded to promote economic cooperation between countries and help in the recovery of world economy from a downturn. The present World trade Organization (WTO) was General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade before 1995. According to the official website of WTO it has 153 members and is located in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aims inclu de removing barriers to international trade, keeping an eye on global economic policy, providing a platform for negotiating and resolving conflicts, reviewing the national trade policies, helping developing countries by providing loans and finally conducting economic research. Now letÃ¢â¬â¢s shift focus from WTO to the famous international Monetary Fund (IMF) which was also created after World War 2 in the year 1946. According to the official website of IMF It has 185 members and is located in Washington DC.... The new global body would make sure that exchange rates remained stable and it gave confidence to its member countries to finish exchange limitations that prevented trade. The World Bank is another instance of an institution that was made to act as a global connector of knowledge, learning and modernization for poverty elimination. It links together practitioners and institutions to assist them in locating suitable answers to their development challenges. With an emphasis on the "how" of modification WB connects knowledge from around the world and causes modernization to rise. The WBÃ¢â¬â¢s aim is to be enable connection of knowledge, learning and innovation for poverty reduction. Practitioners and institutions are connected to facilitate suitable solution to developmental challenges. The focus is on how to reform, and the methodology involves linking up knowledge from around the world and scaling innovation. WBIÃ¢â¬â¢s dream is to encourage change negotiators and provide them wi th suitable instruments enable development. The WBI has always sought to invest in a row of nontechnical methods that match technical answers to development problems. WBIÃ¢â¬â¢s part is to act as a booster for development. By enabling universal reach of innovative technology, they are making instruments, approaches, and online platforms to help in opening and working together on the development process between governments and nations.WBI assists in partnerships and information sharing between policy makers and practitioners. It has made a devoted team that has its centre of attention on South-to-South performer exchanges and participates in a joint venture and outreach function in increasing the eminence of SSKE through
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Computers - Research Paper Example This further took a new dimension when the web 2.0 was introduced with offers like social networking sites, blogs, and other similar features which made it more interesting and hard to resist and avoid. The intensity of the usage and its presence in our daily life can be imagined by the fact that just a single website has as many as eighty million members on it. With time the progress made by computers was so enormous that they crept into different disciplines of life and today they are part of every mobile phone, every television set, every refrigerator and every screen that is out on the road and in the sports gymnasiums. Mid 80s: While the first twenty years were slow in progress with regard to computerÃ¢â¬â¢s development. The dominant force in those times was I.B.M and computers were quite large in size. The changes came in, in time when the black and white and colorless scheme was replaced by the colored screens. The command line interface (C.L.I) was replaced by Graphic User Interface (G.U.I) and it brought more interest in to it(Kumar, 51). Apple Computer Inc. (now Apple Inc) was the pioneer in this regard and introduced resulted in more interest attraction from the customers (O'Grady, 32). The next step in the overall journey was the reduction of sizes of computers. While at first the computers were not able to be handled by single user and mainframe computers were quite common which were only limited to organizational usage, they were soon replaced by the personal computers which resulted in one computer per home and one computer per room. However even this was to change and the change came in form of the monitors and display screens. The cathode ray tubes (C.R.T) were replaced by L.C.D (Liquid Crystal Displays) which... Moore rightly predicted change and increase in the number of computer electronic devices every eighteen to twenty months (Shuman, 10). Where we stand today can be the ground breaking foundation for what is to come ahead. What we consider mammoth in terms of the progress made by computers might well be the stepping stone towards more advanced technologies and with the progress so far made, it is promised to bring further revolution and change in the manner in which computers are being handled. The terabyte space which might seem large enough today might not be even sufficient to accommodate the requirements of future single hard disk drive. They have created a total new world of digital existence with lots of jobs on offer and many other activities which would not be possible otherwise. It is the true gift of 20th century that is bound to stay here for times to come.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Advertising Objectives Essay Furthermore, BudweiserÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to pursue a long-term growth strategy by pursuing high consumption markets and attaining a firm market share among competitors. Budweiser has a strong brand name domestically, but for this particular region it will need to implement a penetration strategy. Also, Budweiser will focus on securing valuable distribution channels including pubs and supermarkets. The product positioning strategy reflects competitive pricing and product differentiation. Inherently, the product reflects cultural values of the target country, with attributes such as caffeine and local flavors that represent regional preferences. The brand may potentially increase market share via acquisition of equity investment. Tactical Details Product Various product attributes will be localized to appeal to consumer tastes such as a diet/lighter version beer with caffeine. Offering smaller glass bottles, which align with European consumption volume trends, will differentiate product packaging. The beer base content will be standardized but with local flavors based on market research. Also, based on potential research findings there is a possible product extension for an Ã¢â¬Å"all-naturalÃ¢â¬ beer within the Austrian market. Additionally, products will be available in mini kegs to support the younger market segment behavioral characteristics. Advertising Implementing TV, Radio, Direct mail, Print ads, and Internet will be necessary to keep up with competitive advertising within this region. Messaging will focus on initially creating awareness. Ultimately, message strategies will portray a global brand through localized messaging. Internet advertising will be highly influential for the demographic market segment. Advertising will include viral ads, flash advertisements, and promotional incentives and incorporate sites such as MySpace and blogs (for the younger generation). Furthermore, sponsorship from popular celebrities or musicians for events and products will appeal to the target market. Personal Selling Face to face education via account executives with clubs/pubs will be imperitive to create awareness and motivate front-line distributors. Additionally, face-to-face points of contact in grocery stores and super/hypermarkets will be important in order to impact this a vast portion of purchases. These tasks will be contracted out to a local sales force that understands the culture, industry and competitive environment. Routine follow-ups and frequent interactions will be emphasized in order to maintain strong distributor relationships. Sales Promotion Incentives will be offered to club owners, super markets and so forth that will be based on volume discounts. A sales contest will also be commenced across the club/pub segment and the supermarket segment to increase purchases, emphasize product push through distribution channels and create awareness for caffeinated beer. Sub-brand specific websites will offer promotional incentives as well (BOGO, etc). Sleek, appealing point of purchase displays will be exhibited in supermarkets. Promotional partnerships with record a company, such as free iTunes downloads with purchase will be implemented to appeal to youthful market. Distribution Distribution will primarily focus on clubs/pubs, closely following the Red Bull distribution model and its flourishing success within this region. Distribution will also be emphasized in super and hypermarkets. Price Policy Pricing will remain competitive, but not premium. Also, based on market research, pricing will reflect that of energy drinks. Product differentiation and promotional efforts will not focus on price, but instead aim to increase purchasing through incentives such as volume discounts. Research A partnership with an experienced European market research agency (i. e. EURO, RSCG) will be imperative to monitoring quality perception and target market acceptance. Research will closely examine brand recognition development over time. Data mining from distributors to track trends will also be influential in understanding consumption behaviors. Research will also be needed in evaluating the possibility of launching a more mainstream bud beer. Finally, based upon success within Austria, further research into surrounding countries will be necessary.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
A Panel Analysis of Venture CapitalÃ¢â¬â¢s Impact on Innovation Performance in Europe :: European Economy, Debt Crisis
The sovereign debt crisis hits heavily European economy. Policymakers are desperately searching for solutions. But resolving the crisis would be much harder if the economies continue to stall or shrink. The key driver for modern economic growth is entrepreneurial innovation (Schumpeter, 1911, 1934; Romer, 1990; Grossman and Helpman, 2002; and Aghion and Howitt, 1992, 1998). Innovation requires constant investments in entrepreneurial firms. Entrepreneurial financing, however, is too risky and too costly for traditional prudent investors. Financial problems are particularly acute in high-growth entrepreneurial firms due to their inherent uncertainty (Hall, 2002). The Community Innovation Survey (2002) reports that the lack of appropriate sources of finance and the high costs of innovation are the most cited hampering factors in European companies. The financial constrains force almost one out of three innovative or potentially innovative Dutch firms to abandon or to slow down their inn ovative projects (Mohnen, Palm, van Der Loeff, and Tiwart, 2008). Savignac (2006) also finds that 17.25 percent of innovative firms are financially constrained in France. The Venture Capital (VC) market provides the unique link between financial surplus and innovation, and mitigates the problem of under-investment in innovative activities by small and new firms (Hall, 2002). The structure of VC firms seems to be designed specifically to light fires under scrappy and ambitions startups, to materialize new business ideas and to maximize return on investment in true innovation projects (Stuck and Weingarten, 2005). There are both ad hoc and academic evidence suggesting that VC boosts American innovation, for example, NVCA (2010), Hellmann and Puri (2000), Kortum and Lerner (2001), and Ueda and Hirukawa (2003). The empirical finding in Europe, however, is not unanimous. On the one hand, Tykvova (2000) finds that VC investments have a highly significant positive effect on patenting activity in Germany. Engel and Keilbach (2002) reveal that the average number of patents in the German VC-backed group is weakly higher than in the control group. Bertoni et al. (2009) report that VC investments promote Italian firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ patenting activity. And Colombo et al. (2009a) find that VC investments have a positive impact on the productivity of 222 Italian firms operating in high-tech manufacturing and services. On the other hand, Peneder (2010) finds that the Austrian VCs have a positive impact on firm growth, yet not on innovation output. Pinch and Sunley (2009) find that there is little evidence that th e British VCs promote the innovation performance of their investees.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
A famous German philosopher named Hegel claimed, Ã¢â¬Å"At the heart of the Greek tragedy is the spectacle of right vs. right.Ã¢â¬ The central idea of the tragedies was not about who was right and wrong, because those two would be effortless to separate from each other, but on who was considered the most right, which would many times be difficult to tell apart. Throughout the tragic play, Antigone, written by the ancient Greek playwright, Sophocles, Antigone was proven to be the most right. This can be verified since Antigone decided to follow the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ law over CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s law, and the punishment that she received from Creon was far too unreasonable. Antigone does what is ethical by pursuing what would be right in accordance to the gods, not in accordance to Creon. Creon believed that Polyneices did not deserve to be buried. Before Antigone is sent to dies, she tells Creon, Ã¢â¬Å"You will remember / What things I suffer, and at whatÃ¢â¬â¢s menÃ¢â¬â¢s hands / Because I would not transgress the laws of heavenÃ¢â¬ (4.78-80). When it comes to order of importance, the gods should be more valued, because they always will know what is right for the people. Those who follow the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ rules more often will most likely make the better decision. As Aristotle once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦human reason is the most godlike part of human nature, a life guided by human reason is superior to any other.Ã¢â¬ Eventually, even Creon himself comes to the realization that he was wrong when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"The laws of the gods are mighty, and a man must serve them / To the last day of his life!Ã¢â¬ (5.108-109) The gods are a powerful force, and if more people are meant to follow them. Honoring the gods is something significant, especially during ancient Greece. Even though Antigone did make the decision of breaking CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s laws, her punishment was not at all fair. Even if one were to say that Antigone did the wrong thing, it is hard to argue that the penalty should not have been as brutal. When discussing this situation with his father, Haemon informs Creon of his thoughts, Ã¢â¬Å"They say no woman has ever, so unreasonably / Dies so shameful a death for a generous actÃ¢â¬ (3.63-64). Antigone wanted to do what was best for Polyneices, to make sure that his death will be as much of an honor as the one of his own brother. And for doing for what she, as well as many other citizens, thought was the most proper thing to do, she was unfairly sentenced to death. Antigone, also before leaving for her punishment, speaks of Creon, Ã¢â¬Å"But if the guilt / Lies upon Creon who judged me, then I pray / May his punishment equal my ownÃ¢â¬ (4.68-70). She knows that she made the most moral decision, so the real punishment will eventually go who have misjudged her, Creon in this case. This did come true, when CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s life when turned into a catastrophe when his son and wife, Haemon and Eurydice, both committed suicide after admitting that they could not possibly live with someone who was so cruel to someone who was innocent. It was a law unreasonable, so it deserved to have been broken. While it is true that anarchy comes from many citizens deciding to rebel against the law, the law that Antigone broke was worthy of breaking. Creon tried to reason his punishment by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"If I permit my own family to rebel / How shall I earn the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s obedience?Ã¢â¬ (3.30-31) It is true that Creon and his family should abide to the laws in order to set an example for his state, but not a law as unjust as that one. There should be exceptions to certain laws, if there is proof that it was the most ethical choice. He also tried to make this decision seem rational by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"Of all the people in this city, only she / Has had contempt for my was and broken itÃ¢â¬ (3.24-25). Actually, Creon is incorrect with making this statement. Many citizens have said that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s decision, but are too afraid of being punished if they choose to stand up for Antigone. Considering the fact that Creon is meant to be a representation of the people he is leading, he should not have been so ignorant to everyone else, and let Antigone free. In this battle of right vs. right, Antigone was shown to be the most justified. All in all, Antigone had made the most reasonable choices, in comparison to Creon. Not only had she chose the gods over Creon, she also suffered an undeserved punishment. Nowadays, we come across sever right vs. right situations, and sometimes it is hard to tell what the better decision is. Learning to separate these from early on will help others make the best choice when problems become more difficult. Human nature has a harder time making the distinction, so it is important to realize the difference when we have problems that require this amount of thought.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
In the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ by Bel Kaufman, a mother and father are relaxing at a park on a Sunday afternoon with their child, Larry, who is playing in the sandbox. Everything was seemly peaceful until another child playing in the sandbox throws sand at Larry. LarryÃ¢â¬â¢s mother tells the other child not to throw sand and to her surprise the childÃ¢â¬â¢s father encourages him to continue throwing sand. The mother was rendered speechless by the father of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of empathy, and so the father of Larry, Morton, decides to step in.When Morton tries to reason with the other father, he goes threatened with Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢You and who else? Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬Å"(Kaufman 1) Feeling intimidated, Morton decides to retreat with his family. The mother criticizes Morton for being weak and not being able to stand up for the family and his son. Enraged and embarrassed the father complains about the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s way of disciplining the child and tries to tak e it upon himself to properly discipline his son. The mother not wanting him to scold or discipline their son in anyway, threatens him with the same threat that the father of the other child said.Throughout this short story, the tone of the story changes a couple of time. Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ starts with a very cheerful, calming moment when the family is relaxing at the park. When sand is thrown at Larry, the story becomes very tense. The jumpiest moment of the short story was when the other father and Morton Ã¢â¬Å"looked at each other nakedlyÃ¢â¬ . This was when Morton has to decide whether he was going to fight or flight. Ultimately he chose flight, and retreated with his family. When the family is retreating the tone of the short story, turns accusatory and shameful.The mother and Morton start to argue as of result, and they try to put the blame on each other. Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ ends very suddenly and in a shocking matter. The mother says to Morton, Ã ¢â¬Å"You and who else? Ã¢â¬ (Kaufman 4). This line is significant because the other father said the same thing to Morton to scare him off. Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ is a short story that has a lot of imagery and symbolism that is caused by the author great description of characters and settings: Ã¢â¬Å"The swing and seesaws stood motionless and abandoned, the slides were empty, and only in the sandbox two little squatted diligently side by sideÃ¢â¬ (Kaufman 1).The quote here proves his the amount of description the author puts into the story. From this one sentence I can get a vivid image of how this scene looks like. The reason why imagery about the setting is really strong in this short story is because, there only is one setting in Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the Park. Ã¢â¬ Kaufman really wants the viewers to understand the environment the characters are in. The author chooses to put a lot of imagery because it will help the reader feel more connected to the story and see t he images the author is trying to convey.The most prominent theme that one would think is present in Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ would be the idea of standing up for what you believe in. The mother in this story stands up for her own beliefs despite being up against a really menacing person, but when she is unable to do so, her husband Morton, steps in attempts to back his wife up. This relates to the other theme that is present in Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ which I personally think is more important. This short story reverses the stereotypical gender roles, where the men are supposed to be the protectors of the family.However this is contradictory because Morton was ultimately unable to stand up to the other father, and had his family retreat. Kaufman illustrated the Morton was weak, and timid, which are not qualities of how a protector should be. Culturally, women would ask the men for help when they need it. For example when the other father was rude to the mother Ã¢â ¬Å"she glanced at MortonÃ¢â¬ (Kaufman 2) for help because he was the man of the family. In addition, when the mother of Larry was trying to find the parents of the other child, she almost automatically looks for the mother of the other child first.Universally, it is more likely for a woman to stay home and take care of the children than the men. After failing to find the mother of the other children, LarryÃ¢â¬â¢s mother immediately scans the park for females, she notices Ã¢â¬Å"two women, and a little girl on roller skates [and then notices the] man on a bench a few feet away. Ã¢â¬ (Kaufman 1) Today, people associate parenthood with a female, very rarely are men mentioned when speaking about parenting. Sunday in the Park In the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ by Bel Kaufman, a mother and father are relaxing at a park on a Sunday afternoon with their child, Larry, who is playing in the sandbox. Everything was seemly peaceful until another child playing in the sandbox throws sand at Larry. LarryÃ¢â¬â¢s mother tells the other child not to throw sand and to her surprise the childÃ¢â¬â¢s father encourages him to continue throwing sand. The mother was rendered speechless by the father of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of empathy, and so the father of Larry, Morton, decides to step in.When Morton tries to reason with the other father, he goes threatened with Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢You and who else? Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬Å"(Kaufman 1) Feeling intimidated, Morton decides to retreat with his family. The mother criticizes Morton for being weak and not being able to stand up for the family and his son. Enraged and embarrassed the father complains about the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s way of disciplining the child and tries to tak e it upon himself to properly discipline his son. The mother not wanting him to scold or discipline their son in anyway, threatens him with the same threat that the father of the other child said.Throughout this short story, the tone of the story changes a couple of time. Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ starts with a very cheerful, calming moment when the family is relaxing at the park. When sand is thrown at Larry, the story becomes very tense. The jumpiest moment of the short story was when the other father and Morton Ã¢â¬Å"looked at each other nakedlyÃ¢â¬ . This was when Morton has to decide whether he was going to fight or flight. Ultimately he chose flight, and retreated with his family. When the family is retreating the tone of the short story, turns accusatory and shameful.The mother and Morton start to argue as of result, and they try to put the blame on each other. Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ ends very suddenly and in a shocking matter. The mother says to Morton, Ã ¢â¬Å"You and who else? Ã¢â¬ (Kaufman 4). This line is significant because the other father said the same thing to Morton to scare him off. Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ is a short story that has a lot of imagery and symbolism that is caused by the author great description of characters and settings: Ã¢â¬Å"The swing and seesaws stood motionless and abandoned, the slides were empty, and only in the sandbox two little squatted diligently side by sideÃ¢â¬ (Kaufman 1).The quote here proves his the amount of description the author puts into the story. From this one sentence I can get a vivid image of how this scene looks like. The reason why imagery about the setting is really strong in this short story is because, there only is one setting in Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the Park. Ã¢â¬ Kaufman really wants the viewers to understand the environment the characters are in. The author chooses to put a lot of imagery because it will help the reader feel more connected to the story and see t he images the author is trying to convey.The most prominent theme that one would think is present in Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ would be the idea of standing up for what you believe in. The mother in this story stands up for her own beliefs despite being up against a really menacing person, but when she is unable to do so, her husband Morton, steps in attempts to back his wife up. This relates to the other theme that is present in Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬ which I personally think is more important. This short story reverses the stereotypical gender roles, where the men are supposed to be the protectors of the family.However this is contradictory because Morton was ultimately unable to stand up to the other father, and had his family retreat. Kaufman illustrated the Morton was weak, and timid, which are not qualities of how a protector should be. Culturally, women would ask the men for help when they need it. For example when the other father was rude to the mother Ã¢â ¬Å"she glanced at MortonÃ¢â¬ (Kaufman 2) for help because he was the man of the family. In addition, when the mother of Larry was trying to find the parents of the other child, she almost automatically looks for the mother of the other child first.Universally, it is more likely for a woman to stay home and take care of the children than the men. After failing to find the mother of the other children, LarryÃ¢â¬â¢s mother immediately scans the park for females, she notices Ã¢â¬Å"two women, and a little girl on roller skates [and then notices the] man on a bench a few feet away. Ã¢â¬ (Kaufman 1) Today, people associate parenthood with a female, very rarely are men mentioned when speaking about parenting.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Impacts generated by Tourism Essay Impacts generated by Tourism Essay Vellas and Becherel (1995) describe international tourism as, Ã¢â¬Å"undeniably one of the most influential phenomena in the economic and social development of our societyÃ¢â¬ . In this essay the range of impacts generated by tourism will be discussed. The main focus will be on the impacts of tourism, but shall also refer to tourism activities, stakeholders and specific destinations. It will identify how the issue of sustainability involves tourism processes and applies to the stakeholders involved in the creation and delivery of tourism product. In Britain and all over the world the evolution of tourism has changed dramatically since the ancient world. Tourism is not a new thing but what people do in their leisure time has widely changed. In Classical times, with Greece developing the Olympics and Rome introducing Spas and Baths shows elements that people visit where experience and attraction existed (Page, 2009.) The middle ages was known for being dark and process declining but also included pilgrims to visit the Holy Land. The Renaissance continued with festivals and fairs and saw a rise in travelling theatres. It was also in this time the activities of diverse social groups emerged. The Grand Tour were key destinations wealthy people visited and tourism reached a high point in the 18th century. This was advanced by the developments in transport and the coming of the train in different areas (Scranton and Davidson, 2007). The coastal areas became popular as a new form of tourism, but created a social differentiation in Britain, with the working and middle class visiting separate areas. This time also seen organised tourism emerge with railway and overseas tours and the first tours to America. The creation of bank holidays encouraged retreats and leisure activities. The development of roads, train also helped tourism develop throughout this time (Page, 2009). The inter-war years saw a rise in travelling overseas and a higher use in passenger liners. Railwa y lines developed further and hotels and hostels were getting promoted and more widely used. Air travel in this time also grew. Mass tourism became possible and since the sixties world tourism was an opportunity for many people (Page, 2009). Bus and Coach travel grew considerably in the 1930s and is still a popular method to use, as is usually a cheaper way to travel and more environmentally friendly. Airlines became established and is such a popular method to be used, for long and short haul flights. Transport is now cheap and reliable and the development of the internet means language barriers are not as much as a problem and it is easier to book are find out about any place in the world. Impacts are a very important component of tourism, especially in relation to the host location. Tourism impacts greatly on local and major economies, with both costs and benefits. The income can be a benefit as Page, et al (2001) express how tourism can increase the total economic status of a country. The industry can lead to a rise in Gross National Product (GDP), which shows the standard of living in a country. Factors such as revenue and the multiplier effects from tourism, tourism-connected employment, backward linkages to other sectors, percentage of all tourism associated imports, level of profit repatriation and the position in the product life cycle if together the money stimulated is used in the local economy, can develop the destination (Pender and Sharpley, 2005). Employment is also one of the benefits, with direct, indirect and induced types of employment generated by tourism. Direct employment is jobs in which are now available due to visitor expenditure and directly sup porting tourism action. Indirect work is jobs produced from within the tourism supply while induced jobs are created as a result from tourist spending as local people spend money received from tourism (Page, et al. 2001). The jobs could not only lower employment rates in the local area but bring in more
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
The Case of Convicted Killer Jeffrey MacDonald On February 17, 1970, a horrific crime took place in the Fort Bragg, North Carolina army base home of U.S. Army surgeon Captain Jeffrey MacDonald. The doctor claimed strangers had broken in, attacked him, and slaughtered his pregnant wife and their two young daughters in a manner that eerily resembled the recent Tate-LaBianca murders carried out by the Manson Family in California. Army investigators didnt buy his story. MacDonald was charged with the murders but later released. Though the case was dismissed, it was far from over. In 1974, a grand jury was convened. MacDonald, now a civilian, was indicted for murder the following year. In 1979, he was tried, found guilty, and sentenced to three consecutive life sentences. Even in the face of conviction, MacDonald has staunchly maintained his innocence and launched numerous appeals. Many people believe him; others do not, including Fatal Vision author Joe McGinnis, who was engaged by MacDonald to write a book exonerating him- but got one condemning him instead. Jeffrey and Colette MacDonalds Bright Beginnings Jeffrey MacDonald and Colette Stevenson grew up in Patchogue, New York. Theyd known one another since grade school. They began dating in high school and the relationship continued during their college years. Jeffrey was at Princeton and Colette attended Skidmore. Just two years into college, in the fall of 1963, the couple decided to marry. By April 1964, their first child Kimberly was born. Colette put her education on hold to become a full-time mother while Jeffrey continued his studies. After Princeton, MacDonald attended Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago. While there, the couples second child Kristen Jean was born in May 1967. Times were tough financially for the young family but the future looked bright. After graduating from medical school the following year and completing his internship at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City, MacDonald decided to join the U.S. Army. The family relocated to Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Advancement came quickly for Captain MacDonald, who was soon appointed Group Surgeon to the Special Forces (Green Berets). Colette was enjoying her role as a busy homemaker and mother of two but she had plans to return to college with the eventual goal of becoming a teacher. Over the Christmas holidays in 1969, Colette let friends know that Jeff would not be going to Vietnam as theyd feared he might. For the MacDonalds, life seemed normal and happy. Colette was expecting a third child- a boy- in July but just two months into the new year, Colettes life and those of her children would come to a tragic and terrifying end. A Horrific Crime Scene On February 17, 1970, an emergency call was forwarded from an operator to the military police at Fort Bragg. Captain Jeffrey MacDonald was pleading for help. He begged for someone to send an ambulance to his home. When the MPs got to the MacDonald residence, they found 26-year-old Colette, along with her two children, 5-year-old Kristen and 2-year-old, Kimberly, dead. Lying beside Colette was Captain Jeffrey MacDonald, his arm stretched over his wifes body. MacDonald was wounded but alive. Kenneth Mica, one of the first MPs to arrive on the scene, discovered the bodies of Colette and the two girls. Colette was on her back, her chest partially covered by a torn pajama top. Her face and head had been battered. She was covered in blood. Kimberlys head had been bludgeoned. The child also suffered stab wounds on her neck. Kristen had been stabbed in her chest and back 33 times with a knife and 15 more with an icepick. The word Pig was scrawled in blood on the headboard in the master bedroom. MacDonald appeared to be unconscious. Mica performed mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. When MacDonald came to, he complained of not being able to breathe. Mica says that while MacDonald did request medical attention, he attempted to shove him away, urgently demanding that the MP tend to his children and wife instead. The Woman in the Floppy Hat When Mica questioned MacDonald about what had happened, MacDonald told him that three male intruders accompanied by a hippie-type woman had broken into the home and attacked him and his family. According to MacDonald, a blonde female, wearing a floppy hat, high-heeled boots and holding a candle had chanted, Acid is groovy. Kill the pigs, as the carnage took place. Mica recalled noticing a woman who fit that description while en route to the crime scene. She was standing outside in the rain on a street not far from the MacDonald home. Mica informed a superior at the armys Criminal Investigation Division (CID) about having seen the woman but says his observations were ignored. The CID chose to remain focused on the physical evidence and the statements MacDonald made regarding the crimes to formulate their theory of the case. The First Murder Charges At the hospital, MacDonald was treated for wounds to his head, as well as various cuts and bruises to his shoulders, chest, hand, and fingers. He also sustained several puncture wounds around his heart, including one that punctured his lung, causing it to collapse. MacDonald remained hospitalized for a week, leaving only to attend the funerals of his wife and daughters. MacDonald was released from the hospital on February 25, 1970. On April 6, 1970, MacDonald underwent an extensive interrogation by CID investigators, who concluded that MacDonalds injuries were superficial and self-inflicted. They believed that his story about intruders was a fabrication created as a coverup and that MacDonald himself was responsible for the murders. On May 1, 1970, Captain Jeffrey MacDonald was formally charged by the U.S. Army for the murder of his family. Five months later, however, Colonel Warren Rock, the presiding officer over the Article 32 hearing, recommended that the charges be dropped, citing insufficient evidence to indict. MacDonalds defense civilian defense attorney Bernard L. Segal had argued that the CID botched their jobs at the crime scene, losing or compromising valuable evidence. He also floated a credible theory of alternative suspects, claiming to have found Helena Stoeckley, the woman in the floppy hat, and her boyfriend, a drug-using army veteran named Greg Mitchell, as well as witnesses who claimed Stoeckley had confessed to her involvement in the murders. After a five-month inquisition, MacDonald was released and received an honorable discharge in December. By JulyÃ 1971 he was in living in Long Beach, California, and working at the St. Mary Medical Center. Colettes Parents Turn Against MacDonald Initially, Colettes mother and stepfather, Mildred and Freddie Kassab, fully supported MacDonald, believing him innocent. Freddie Kassab testified for MacDonald at his Article 32 hearing. But all that changed when they reportedly received a disturbing phone call from MacDonald in November 1970, during which he claimed to have hunted down and killed one of the intruders. While MacDonald explained away the call as an attempt to get an obsessive Freddie Kassab to let go of the investigation, the revenge story made the Kassabs uneasy. Their suspicions were stoked by several media appearances MacDonald made, including one on The Dick Cavett Show in which he showed no signs of grief or outrage over the murders of his family. Instead, MacDonald spoke angrily of the Armys mishandling of the case, going so far as to accuse CID investigators of lying, covering up evidence, and scapegoating him for their bungling. MacDonalds behavior and what they deemed arrogant demeanor led the Kassabs to think that MacDonald might have actually murdered their daughter and grandchildren after all. After reading a full transcript of MacDonalds Article 32 hearing, they were convinced. Believing MacDonald to be guilty, In 1971, Freddie Kassab and CID investigators returned to the crime scene, where they attempted to recreate the events of the killings as described by MacDonald, only to arrive at the conclusion that his account was totally implausible. Concerned that MacDonald was going to get away with murder, in April of 1974 the aging Kassabs filed a citizens complaint against their former son-in-law. In August, a grand jury convened to hear the case in Raleigh, North Carolina. MacDonald waived his rights and appeared as the first witness.Ã In 1975, MacDonald was indicted on one count of first-degree murder in the death of one of his daughters, and two counts of second-degree murder for the deaths of his wife and second child. While MacDonald awaited trial, he was released on $100,000 bail. During this time, his lawyers appealed to the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals to dismiss the charges on the grounds that his right to a speedy trial had been violated. The decision was overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court in on May 1, 1978, and MacDonald was remanded for trial. The Trial and the Verdict The trial opened on July 16, 1979, in Federal Court in Raleigh, North Carolina with Judge Franklin Dupree presiding (the same judge whoÃ¢â¬â¢d heard Grand Jury arguments five years before). The prosecution entered into evidence a 1970 Esquire magazine found at the crime scene. The issue featured an article on the Manson family murders, which they argued had given MacDonald the blueprint for his so-called Ã¢â¬Å"hippieÃ¢â¬ murder scenario. The prosecution also called an FBI lab technician whose testimony regarding physical evidence from the stabbings wholly contradicted the events as described by MacDonald. In Helena StoeckleyÃ¢â¬â¢s testimony, she claimed never to have been inside the MacDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s home. When the defense attempted to call rebuttal witnesses to refute her assertions, they were denied by Judge Dupree. MacDonald took the stand in his own defense but despite a lack of motive, he was unable to come up with a convincing argument to disprove the prosecutionÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the murders. On August 26, 1979, he was convicted of second-degree murder for the deaths of Collette and Kimberly, and first-degree murder of Kristen.Ã The Appeals On July 29, 1980, a panel of the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned MacDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s conviction, again as a violation of his 6th Amendment right to a speedy trial. In August, he was released on $100,000 bail. MacDonald returned to his job as the Head of Emergency Medicine at the Long Beach Medical Center. When the case was heard once again in December, the 4th Circuit upheld their earlier decision but the U.S. government appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Oral arguments in the case took place in December 1981. On March 31, 1982, the Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that MacDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s right to a speedy trial had not been violated. He was sent back to prison. Subsequent appeals to the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals and the U.S. Supreme Court have been denied. A 2014 appeal was based on DNA testing of hairs found on ColletteÃ¢â¬â¢s leg and hands that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t match any member of the MacDonald family. It was denied in December of 2018. MacDonald continues to maintain his innocence. He was originally eligible for parole in 1990 but refused to consider it because he says it would have been an admission of guilt. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s since remarried and is next eligible for parole in May 2020.Ã Sources The MacDonald Case Website.McGinnis, Joe, FatalVision. New American Library, August 1983Lavois, Denise. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËFatal VisionÃ¢â¬â¢ Doctor Denied New Trial in Family Triple Murder.Ã¢â¬ Associated Press/Army Times. December 21, 2018Balestrieri, Steve. Ã¢â¬Å"Jeffrey MacDonald Stands Trial For His Wife and Daughters Murders in 1979.Ã¢â¬ Special Operations. July 17, 2018
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Macro & Micro economics - Essay Example The micro and the macro environmental factors influence the market and the marketing decisions. The product of a company considers the differentiation strategies so that the product is accepted by the consumers. Thus, for influencing the market the marketing decisions on the product is important. The price of the product also influences the response of the market towards purchase of the product. This influences the marketing decision for fixing a competitive price. Similarly place and promotion for launch and sell of the product influences the market. The decision on the distribution system of the products enables a smoother access of the products by the consumers. The decision on promotional strategies on the basis of the target customer segment influences the behaviour of the market. Similar to the micro environmental factors, the macro environmental factors like the political scenario influences the operations of the market. Thus marketing decisions should take into consideration the uncertainties of the political factors. Similarly, the other macro environmental factors like the culture of the society, surge in economic conditions, legal constraints influence the market investments. These factors are not under the direct control of the market and hence, the marketing decisions are influenced by the uncertainties associated with the market performance. Segmentation variables to define a market segment The various segmentation variables that need to be considered to define a target market segment are the sizes of the market segments, growth rate of the market segment, suitability of the market segment with respect to the product of the company, access of the market segment by the company and the purchasing power of the market segment. The various market segments are identified based on various features like the demographics, psychographic and the geographic factors. The target size of the market segment is identified based on the suitability of the market seg ment with respect to the product. The growth rate of the market segment is then determined to estimate whether its matches the required growth rate and the future prospects. After determining the suitability of the market segment, the potential access to the market segment is determined by the firm. Finally the purchasing power of the market segment is analyzed to determine whether it matches the price of the product. By considering all these segmentation variables, the target market segment is defined that matches the requirement of the company with respect to the desired features. Different types of pricing strategy The various ways of maximization of profits of the business lies at the cutting of costs, increase in sales and increasing the profits. In a situation where costs are reduced to the limit and itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to increase the sales of the company, the pricing strategies are adopted in such a scenario. The different pricing strategies are namely, cost plus pricing, market-oriented pricing and penetration pricing. The cost plus pricing method takes into consideration the basic cost of production and then adds a certain percentage to the basic cost to determine the sale price of the pro
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Cold war and realism in International Relations - Essay Example Even after the fall of Soviet Union the subject continues to attract much attention of the scholars. The desire to understand the rise and fall of a great power has combined with the urge of better understanding the future course of history. Various scholars have attempted to understand the volatile nature of modern international relations. International Relation theories help a great deal in understanding the historical events and when we talk about Cold War, the theory of realism dominates the other theories towards a better understanding of the facts. The theory has its pros and cons but it hold itself true in many cases while trying to understand the cold war phenomenon. The end of World War II marked the start of the cold war. The cold war was essentially a struggle of power between the west led by United States of America (USA) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Although both were partners during the World War II but their differences arose soon after the war on the future shape of the world. The USA led the western block whereas USSR created the eastern block comprising over eastern European countries and countries annexed by USSR. The cold war was multifaceted. It signified a bi-polar world where both US and USSR were striving for hegemony on political, military and economic fronts. Both had their ambitions but had the fears of otherÃ¢â¬â¢s dominance resulting in efforts of balance of power as well. The cold war reached it culminating point when USSR invaded Afghanistan and tried to reach the warm waters whereas US used its diplomacy and resources to stop USSR. It ended in 1991 when the later collapsed due to economic, military and political turmoil. The cold war is named as such because through out this era no actual war took place between the two sides but the threat of such war kept looming the political world throughout. Such was the tension between the two sides that the world at large feared a World War