Wednesday, July 31, 2019
This article is about the distressing incident which took place in Bangladesh where 228 people died in the fall down of eight storeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Rana Plaza. Rana Plaza had shops, offices and factories crowded with many people. But due to its substandard construction building got collapsed and fell down killing many people. While many of them got trapped and seriously wounded and the Bangladeshi government confirmed a day of national grief.Rana Plaza contained four garment factories which were supplying economical garments to global retailers like Primark and BonmarchÃ © with their western customer base. Even it was announced that the building is no safer for work and needs to be evacuated on immediate basis but New Wave workers were forced to work in order to fulfill the orders of Primark and BonmarchÃ ©. Initially both British companies accepted that New Wave was among their suppliers and committed to offer the possible support but later on refused to take any kind of responsibility in this regard.In the opinion of retail consultants and other professionals both of the companies are responsible to inspect and monitor the minimum working standards and overall conditions in which their designs and products are being produced as they are earning revenues by selling the same products. The cheap labour and workers who are working in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, SriLanka etc have the similar rights as of western workers and they should be equally acknowledged for their profession and work.Most of the big retailers like Primark, BonmarchÃ © are outsourcing their products from under developed countries and their customers are getting benefits too of buying low priced items. The Government of Bangladesh and all under developed countries have to implement strict standards for construction of factories, industrial and commercial buildings in order to avoid such disasters. On the other hand the Governments of big retailers have to impose certain statutory regulations whic h will protect their manufacturers/suppliers in countries like Bangladesh.Lastly consumers have to play their role by using the purchasing power to force big retailers to follow a book of rule. I would like to add similar incidents which happened in the factories, commercial and residential buildings of Pakistan. Garment factories in the Pakistani cities of Karachi and Lahore caught fire on 11 September 2012. The fires occurred in a textile factory in the western part of Karachi and in a shoemaking factory in Lahore.The fires are considered to be the most deadly and worst industrial factory fires in Pakistan's history, killing 257 people and seriously injuring more than 600. The garment factory Ã¢â¬Å"Ali EnterprisesÃ¢â¬ , which is located in Plot 67, Hub Road, Baldia Town, Karachi, used to export its garments to Europe and the United, and had employed between 1,200 and 1,500 workers. Ali Enterprises manufactured denim, knitted garments, and hosiery, and had capital of between $10 million and $50 million.Workers at Ali Enterprises said they earned between 5,000 and 10,000 rupees ($52 to $104) a month for their labour. Margalla Towers Islamabad, Pakistan got collapsed in year 2005. All of these incidents usually take place in developing countries due to the negligence of building owners, lack of construction standards, corruption and lack of governance. Conclusion: The only solution is to build and construct the industrial factories by following international construction standards in order to avoid such disasters.And international retailers should be very careful in selecting their production partners in order to have smooth supply chain function. The most sensible conclusion is to accept that responsibility is shared between companies and consumers. Put simply, all of us have a duty. Ã¢â¬Å"If we want to wear cheap clothes, which are made by people who work in these conditions, then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a moral responsibility for us as well as for the brands,Ã¢â ¬ says Ms Lissaman. Disaster of Bangladesh This article is about the distressing incident which took place in Bangladesh where 228 people died in the fall down of eight storeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Rana Plaza. Rana Plaza had shops, offices and factories crowded with many people. But due to its substandard construction building got collapsed and fell down killing many people. While many of them got trapped and seriously wounded and the Bangladeshi government confirmed a day of national grief.Rana Plaza contained four garment factories which were supplying economical garments to global retailers like Primark and Bonmarche with their western customer base. Even it was announced that the building is no safer for work and needs to be evacuated on immediate basis but New Wave workers were forced to work in order to fulfill the orders of Primark and Bonmarche. Initially both British companies accepted that New Wave was among their suppliers and committed to offer the possible support but later on refused to take any kind of responsibility in thi s regard.In the opinion of retail consultants and other professionals both of the companies are responsible to inspect and monitor the minimum working standards and overall conditions in which their designs and products are being produced as they are earning revenues by selling the same products. The cheap labour and workers who are working in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, SriLanka etc have the similar rights as of western workers and they should be equally acknowledged for their profession and work.Most of the big retailers like Primark, Bonmarche are outsourcing their products from under developed countries and their customers are getting benefits too of buying low priced items. The Government of Bangladesh and all under developed countries have to implement strict standards for construction of factories, industrial and commercial buildings in order to avoid such disasters. On the other hand the Governments of big retailers have to impose certain statutory regulations which will pr otect their manufacturers/suppliers in countries like Bangladesh.Lastly consumers have to play their role by using the purchasing power to force big retailers to follow a book of rule. I would like to add similar incidents which happened in the factories, commercial and residential buildings of Pakistan. Garment factories in the Pakistani cities of Karachi and Lahore caught fire on 11 September 2012. The fires occurred in a textile factory in the western part of Karachi and in a shoemaking factory in Lahore.The fires are considered to be the most deadly and worst industrial factory fires in Pakistan's history, killing 257 people and seriously injuring more than 600. The garment factory Ã¢â¬Å"Ali EnterprisesÃ¢â¬ , which is located in Plot 67, Hub Road, Baldia Town, Karachi, used to export its garments to Europe and the United, and had employed between 1,200 and 1,500 workers. Ali Enterprises manufactured denim, knitted garments, and hosiery, and had capital of between $10 million and $50 million.Workers at Ali Enterprises said they earned between 5,000 and 10,000 rupees ($52 to $104) a month for their labour. Margalla Towers Islamabad, Pakistan got collapsed in year 2005. All of these incidents usually take place in developing countries due to the negligence of building owners, lack of construction standards, corruption and lack of governance. Conclusion: The only solution is to build and construct the industrial factories by following international construction standards in order to avoid such disasters.And international retailers should be very careful in selecting their production partners in order to have smooth supply chain function. The most sensible conclusion is to accept that responsibility is shared between companies and consumers. Put simply, all of us have a duty. Ã¢â¬Å"If we want to wear cheap clothes, which are made by people who work in these conditions, then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a moral responsibility for us as well as for the brands,Ã¢â¬ says Ms Lissaman.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The literature reappraisal will concentrate on the debut of the test timetabling system that has been used in universities and timetabling that usage in other field and their job. Educational timetabling optimisation is a major administrative activity for a broad assortment of establishments. A timetabling optimisation job can be defined as delegating a figure of events into a limited figure of clip periods to optimise the consequence in the timetable to salvage cost, clip, infinite or other thing that can be save. This study besides reviews the technique that can be used in optimising the fresh category in exam timetabling.2.1 PROBLEM DOMAINÃ¢â¬Å" A.Wren ( 1996 ) defines timetabling is the allotment, capable to restraints, of given resources to objects being placed in infinite clip, in such a manner as to fulfill every bit about as possible a set of desirable aims ( Burke & A ; Petrovic,2002 ) . Many research workers has part in timetabling jobs in several old ages subsequently due to the fact that timetabling jobs are frequently over-constrained, dynamic, and optimisation standards are difficult to specify. Some of the parts from those research workers are including graph colouring, whole number scheduling from Operations Research, simulated tempering, taboo hunt, familial algorithms, and restraint logic programming from Artificial Intelligence ( Alashwal & A ; Deris, 2007 ) . Timetabling is produced by the programming job and it can be shown in many different signifiers. Timetabling is really of import to Business Company, organisation, or even to single. With timetable the work will go more systematic and efficient. Timetabling is ongoing and uninterrupted procedure. A procedure of updating timetables is needed consideration of a important figure of objects and restraints. As increasing a figure of pupils, an updated to the current traditional timetabling system should be done from clip to clip to do the executable programming to pupils. Therefore, it takes a batch of clip such as several yearss or even hebdomads to finish scheduling timetables manually by homo. A timetabling job is about an assignment of a set of activities, actions or events at specific clip slot for illustration: work displacements, responsibilities, categories to a set of resources. Timetabling jobs is related to jobs on allotment resources to specific seasonableness which there are specific restraints must be considered. The resources such as groups and topics are allocated to a clip slot of schoolrooms every bit long as it was fulfilling their restraints ( Norberciak, 2006 ) . This undertaking chief end is to bring forth a best consequence of delegating pupil to a category that will optimise the used categories. The trouble is due to the great complexness of the building of timetables for test, due the scheduling size of the scrutinies and the high figure of restraints and standards of allotment, normally circumvented with the usage of small rigorous heuristics, based on solutions from old old ages. The aim of this work is the scrutiny agendas. The chief intent is to apportion each concluding test paper to the best category based on the figure of pupil taking the paper, automatically by utilizing computing machines. The people confronting these troubles is the people who in charge of delegating these exam manually. The variable is the day of the month of the test, clip of the test, topics, test documents, figure of pupil taking the exam paper and the available category. They need to group this test in test day of the month and clip of the test which is in forenoon or eventide. After that they will delegate each exam paper to an available category that fitted to the figure of pupil taking the test. These stairss will go on until all the test documents have their categories.2.2 Technique THAT CAN BE USED IN THE PROJECTThere are many intelligent techniques or method of optimisation that has been tried throughout the decennaries since the first efforts of automatizing the scrutiny timetabling procedure such as Particle Swarm Optimization ( PSO ) , Artificial Immune Algorithm, Graph Coloring Method and Genetic Algorithm.2.2.1 PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ( PSO )Goldberg, Davis and Cheng says that PSO is different from other methodological analysiss that use natural development as the architecture while PSO is based on societal behaviour of development ( S.C.Chu, Y.T.Chen & A ; J.H.Ho, 2006 ) . PSO use self-organisation and division of labour for distributed job work outing similar to the corporate behaviour of insect settlements, bird flocks and other carnal societies ( D.R.Fealco, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Kennedy and Eberhart ( 2001 ) , PSO comparatively new stochastic GO which is known as Global Optimization member if the Broader Swarm intelligence field for work outing optimisation job ( D.R.Fealco, 2005 ) . PSO utilizing population of atom procedure to seek the system so each atom is updated by following two best values in every loop ( S.C.Chu, Y.T.Chen & A ; J.H.Ho, 2006 ) . Optimization job in PSO is done by delegating way vectors and speeds to each point in a multi-dimensional hunt infinite and Each point so Ã¢â¬Ëmoves Ã¢â¬Ë or Ã¢â¬Ëflies Ã¢â¬Ë through the hunt infinite following its speed vector, which is influenced by the waies and speeds of other points in its vicinity to localised loops of possible solution ( C.Jacob & A ; N.Khemka,2004 ) . Algorithm The PSO algorithm works at the same time keeping several candidate solution in the hunt infinite. PSO algorithm consist of seven measure ( C.Jacob & A ; N.Khemka,2004 ) . Which is Initialize the population Ã¢â¬â locations and speeds. Measure the fittingness of the single atom ( pBest ) . Keep path of the persons highest fittingness ( gBest ) . Modify speeds based on pBest and gBest place. Update the atoms place. Terminate if the status is meet. Travel to Step 2. The item of the PSO algorithm is shown in Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1: The procedure of PSO2.2.2 ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE ALGORITHMArtificial Immune Algorithm besides known as AIS are stimulated from nature of human immune system. Dasgupta, Ji and Gonzalez reference that characteristic extraction, pattern acknowledgment, memory and its distributive nature provide rich metaphor for its unreal opposite number are the powerful capablenesss of the immune system ( H.Yulan, C.H Siu & A ; M.K Lai ) . Timmis & A ; Jonathan ( 2000 ) depict the AIS used natural immune system as the metaphor as the attack for work outing computational job ( M.R.Malim, A.T.Khadir & A ; A.Mustafa ) . Anomaly sensing, pattern acknowledgment, computing machine security, mistake tolerance, dynamic environments, robotic, informations excavation optimisation and programming are the chief sphere application of AIS ( M.R.Malim, A.T.Khadir & A ; A.Mustafa ) . Some preliminary biological footings in order to understand the AIS are immune cells B-cells and T-cells are two major group of immune cell and it help in acknowledging an about illimitable scope of anti cistrons form and antigens ( AG ) is the disease-causing component, it has two type s of antigens which is self and non-self where non-self antigens are disease-causing elements and self anti-genes are harmless to the organic structure ( R.Agarwal, M.K.Tiwari, S.K.Mukherjee, 2006 ) . There are two chief application sphere in AIS which is antigen and antibody. Antigen is the mark or the solution for the job, while the antibody is the reminder of the informations. Occasionally, there are more than one antigen at a certain clip and there are often big figure of antibodies present at one time. Generic stairss of unreal immune system ( AIS ) : Measure 1: Define job specific nonsubjective map and set the algorithm parametric quantity. Set iter=0 ; counter for figure of loops. Generate initial executable random solutions. ( Here solution represents operation precedence figure matching to each activity ) . Measure 2: Randomly choose an antigen and expose to all antibodies. Calculate the affinity of all antigens and make affinity vector Af. ( In our instance to calculate affinity, first optimal/near optimum agendas of activities are determined with the aid of precedence figure as give in Section 3.3 thenceforth ; its make span value is calculated ) . Measure 3: Choice Pc highest affinity antibodies. Generate the set of ringers for the selected antibodies. Measure 4: For each generated ringer do inverse mutant ( choose a part of ringer twine and invert ) with a chance and cipher the affinity of the new solution formed. If affinity ( new solution ) & gt ; affinity ( ringer ) so clone=new solution ; else do partner off wise interchange mutant ( choice any two location and inter- alteration elements ) . Calculate the affinity of the new solution formed if affinity ( new solution ) & gt ; affinity ( ringer ) so clone=new solution ; else, clone=clone. Measure 5: Expose the new inhabitants of the society ( i.e. , ringers ) to the antigens. Check for feasibleness and calculate affinity. Measure 6: Replace the Ps lowest affinity antibodies with the Ps best ringers generated. Iter=iter+1 ; if ( iter & lt ; iter_max ) goto measure 2 else Give the best antibody as the end product. The AIS flow chart is shown in Figure 2.2. Figure 2.2: AIS flow chart2.2.3 GRAPH COLORING METHODIt is good known that the scrutiny timetabling job, when sing merely the scrutiny conflicts restraint, maps into an tantamount graph colourising job ( Kiaer & A ; Yellen, 1992 ) , which is NP-complete ( Burke, Elliman, & A ; Weare, 1993 ; Willemen, 2002 ) . The graph colouring job is an assignment of colourss to vertices in such a mode that no two next vertices have the same colour. Therefore, a solution to the graph colourising job represents a solution to the nucleus scrutiny timetabling job, where graph vertices correspond to exams, graph borders indicate that the affiliated vertices have an scrutiny struggle, and colourss represent alone clip slots ( Welsh & A ; Powell, 1967 ) . The graph colourising job in bend is solved utilizing one of the graph colourising heuristics ( e.g. , Largest Degree ) , normally with backtracking ( Burke, Newall, & A ; Weare, 1998 ; Carter, Laporte, & A ; Chinneck, 1994 ) . Graph colouring is a particular instance of graph labeling. It is an assignment of labels traditionally called Ã¢â¬Å" colourss Ã¢â¬ to elements of a graph topic to certain restraints. In its simplest signifier, it is a manner of colourising the vertices of a graph such that no two next vertices portion the same colour ; this is called a vertex colouring. Similarly, an border colourising assigns a colour to each border so that no two adjacent borders portion the same colour, and a face colouring of a planar graph assigns a colour to each face or part so that no two faces that portion a boundary have the same colour ( DR Hussein & A ; K.E.Sabri, 2006 ) . Graph colouring is one of the most functional theoretical accounts in graph theory. It has been used to work out many jobs such as in school timetabling, computing machine registry allotment, electronic bandwidth allotment, and many other applications ( Dr Hussein & A ; K.E.Sabri, 2006 ) . Dr Hussein and K.E.Sabri besides mention that Greedy Graph Coloring is one of the consecutive techniques for colourising a graph. They stated that the technique focuses on carefully select the following vertex to be colored. In their study they explain two common algorithm which is first tantrum and grade based telling techniques. First tantrum: First Fit algorithm is the easiest and fastest technique of all greedy colourising heuristics. The algorithm consecutive assigns each vertex the lowest legal colour. This algorithm has the advantage of being really simple and fast and can be implemented to run in O ( N ) . Degree based ordination: It provides a better scheme for colourising a graph. It uses a certain choice standard for taking the vertex to be colored. This scheme is better than the First Fit which merely picks a vertex from an arbitrary order. Some schemes for choosing the following vertex to be colored have been proposed such as: Largest grade telling ( LDO ) : It chooses a vertex with the highest figure of neighbours. Intuitively, LDO provides a better colouring than the First Fit. This heuristic can be implemented to run in O ( n2 ) . Saturation grade telling ( SDO ) : The impregnation grade of a vertex is defined as the figure of its next otherwise colored vertices. Intuitively, this heuristic provides a better colouring than LDO as it can be implemented to run in O ( n3 ) . Incidence grade telling ( IDO ) : A alteration of the SDO heuristic is the incidence grade telling. The incidence grade of a vertex is defined as the figure of its next coloured vertices. This heuristic can be implemented to run in O ( n2 ) .2.2.4 GENETIC ALGORITHMThe familial algorithms distinguish themselves in the field of methods of optimisation and hunt for the assimilation of the Darwinian paradigm of the development of species. The familial algorithms are procedures of convergence ( Queiros, 1995 ) . Its construction is governed by import Torahs of the theory of development of species and concreteness in two cardinal constructs: choice and reproduction. The confrontation between familial algorithms and the existent jobs is promoted by the demand for optimisation. It follows a infinite of tremendous dimensions, in which each point represents a possible solution to the job. In this labyrinth of solutions, merely a few, if non merely one, to the full satisfy the list of restraints that give form to the job. The jobs of optimisation, normally associated with the satisfaction of restraints, specify a existence of solutions, go forthing the familial algorithm to find the overall solution, or a solution acceptable as a restriction on the clip of action of the algorithm. The familial algorithms are search algorithms based on mechanisms of natural choice and genetic sciences. Normally used to work out optimisation jobs, where the infinite of hunt is great and conventional methods is inefficient ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) . Characteristic The nomenclature they are associated to interpret the import of indispensable constructs of genetic sciences and guesses the importance attributed to the interaction of these constructs. The construct of population, like figure of persons of the same species, is extended to unreal species. Persons are usually represented by sequences of Numberss: the genotype. The Numberss, or instead, a aggregation of Numberss, is the familial heritage of the person, finding their features, that is, its phenotype. The familial algorithms differ from traditional methods of research and optimisation, chiefly in four facets: Work with a codification of the set of parametric quantities and non with their ain parametric quantities. Work with a population and non with a individual point. Uses information from or derive cost and non derived or other subsidiary cognition. Uses regulations of passage chance and non deterministic. The solutions interact, mix up and bring forth progeny ( kids ) trusting that retaining the features Ã¢â¬Å" good Ã¢â¬ of their rise ( parents ) , which may be seen as a local hunt, but widespread. Not merely is the vicinity of a simple solution exploited, but besides the vicinity of a whole population. The members of the population are called persons or chromosomes. As in natural development, the chromosomes are the basal stuff ( practical, in this instance ) of heredity. It presently uses a map of rating that associates each person, a existent figure that translates to version. Then, in a mode straight relative to the value of their version, are selected braces of chromosomes that will traverse themselves. Here, can be considered the choice with elitism, or guarantee that the best solution is portion of the new coevals. His crossing is the consequence of unreal choice, sing more altered those that best run into the specific conditions of the job. The crossing of the numerical sequences promotes the outgrowth of new sequences, formed from the first. With a chance established, after traversing, a mutant can go on, where a cistron of chromosome alterations. These new persons are the 2nd coevals of persons and grade the terminal of rhythm of the familial algorithm. The figure of rhythms to execute depends on the context of the job and the degree of quality ( partial or full satisfaction of the limitations ) , which is intended for the solution.126.96.36.199 A SIMPLE GENETIC ALGORITHM DESCRIBES THE FOLLOWING CYCLEThere are eight measure in familial algorithm rhythm which is: Coevals of random n chromosomes that form the initial population. Appraisal of each person of the population. Confirmation of the expiration standards. If verify expiration standard Ã¢â¬â rhythm stoping. Choice of n/2 braces of chromosomes for crossing over. Reproduction of chromosomes with recombination and mutant. New population of chromosomes called new coevals. Travel back to step 2. The rhythm described above is illustrated in Figure 2.1. Fig. 2.1. Basic construction of the familial algorithmLow-level formattingInitially many single solutions are indiscriminately generated to organize an initial population. The population size depends on the nature of the job, but typically contains several 100s or 1000s of possible solutions. Traditionally, the population is generated indiscriminately, covering the full scope of possible solutions ( the hunt infinite ) . Occasionally, the solutions may be seeded in countries where optimum solutions are likely to be found ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) .ChoiceDuring each consecutive coevals, a proportion of the bing population is selected to engender a new coevals. Individual solutions are selected through a fitness-based procedure, where fitter solutions ( as measured by a fittingness map ) are typically more likely to be selected. Certain selection methods rate the fittingness of each solution and preferentially choose the best solutions. Other methods rate merely a random sample of the population, as this procedure may be really time-consuming ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) . Most maps are stochastic and designed so that a little proportion of less fit solutions are selected. This helps maintain the diverseness of the population big, preventing premature convergence on hapless solutions. Popular and well-studied choice methods include roulette wheel choice and tournament choice ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) .ReproductionThe following measure is to bring forth a 2nd coevals population of solutions from those selected through familial operators: crossing over ( besides called recombination ) , and/or mutant. For each new solution to be produced, a brace of Ã¢â¬Å" parent Ã¢â¬ solutions is selected for engendering from the pool selected antecedently. By bring forthing a Ã¢â¬Å" kid Ã¢â¬ solution utilizing the above methods of crossing over and mutant, a new solution is created which typically portions many of the features of its Ã¢â¬Å" parents Ã¢â¬ . New parents are selected for each new kid, and the procedure continues until a new population of solutions of appropriate size is generated. Although reproduction methods that are based on the usage of two parents are more Ã¢â¬Å" biological science divine Ã¢â¬ , some research suggests more than two Ã¢â¬Å" parents Ã¢â¬ are better to be used to reproduce a good quality chromosome ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) . These processes finally consequence in the following coevals population of chromosomes that is different from the initial coevals. By and large the mean fittingness will hold increased by this process for the population, since merely the best being from the first coevals are selected for genteelness, along with a little proportion of less fit solutions, for grounds already mentioned above.TerminationThis generational procedure is repeated until a expiration status has been reached ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) . Common terminating conditions are: A solution is found that satisfies minimal standards. Fixed figure of coevalss reached. Allocated budget ( calculation time/money ) reached. The highest superior solution Ã¢â¬Ës fittingness is making or has reached a tableland such that consecutive loops no longer bring forth better consequences. Manual review. Combinations of the above.2.3 Related Work2.4 SummaryFamilial Algorithm is the best algorithm in timetabling job. The consequences in GAs are better optimized than the traditional method based on try-check rules on scheduling system. Some research worker had different sentiment on the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms. Although there are new method on optimising consequence, GAs is still the chosen method in timetabling job.
Emotion and Human Destruction In both 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and Mary ShellyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein, man tries to create something more advanced than mankind. But, even though they are more advanced, they are less developed. The creations in both of these works have one major flaw, and that is that they cannot control their emotions. The creation called HAL 9000 in 2001 is a supercomputer designed to learn at incredible speed and calculate thousands of important facets on the voyage of Discovery.The monster in Frankenstein created by Victor Frankenstein also had the capability to learn at incredible speeds, had superhuman abilities, and became so smart that he could have rivaled his creator. However, neither HAL nor the monster had the mental capacity to control the amount of power their creators had given them. This becomes the main conflict in both of these works. From the emotional decay of these powerful creatures, we come to an ambiguous conclusion: Emotions will always lea d to the destruction of humanity.Happiness is one of many human emotions. Oftentimes, life events stimulate how happy we become. Furthermore, the need to find happiness and overcome obstacles is a need all humans have. There are a certain number of attributes that acute for a humans overall happiness. To name a few, things like living conditions, overall health, wealth, and relationships with other humans. The monster in Frankenstein had none of these things. He quotes, Ã¢â¬Å"Here then I retreated, and lay down happy to have found a shelter, however miserable, from the inclemency of the season. (Shelly 94). And later it quotes, Ã¢â¬Å"I possessed noÃ money, no friends, and no kind of property. Ã¢â¬ (Shelly 101) The monster had terrible living conditions; his diet consisted of nuts and berries, he had no money, and he had no friends. This led the monster to be extremely unhappy. And when humans are unhappy, they become jealous of others happiness. With happiness come jealously, an emotion we all pretend we never experience. But, when a human sees someone who is happier than they are, they instantly become jealous.They want what that person has, and they will do anything to get it. The monster is a pure example of this . He quotes, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ I lay on my straw, but I could not sleep. I thought of the occurrences of the day. What chiefly struck me was the gentle manners of these people; and I longed to join them, but dared not. Ã¢â¬ (Shelley 93) The monster wanted human companionship, but he felt the humans would not accept him since he was ugly. This is why he talked to DeLacey first. DeLacey was blind, and could not discriminate against him.The monster basically pleads for acceptance quoting, Ã¢â¬Å"This, I thought, was the moment of decision, which was to rob me of, or bestow happiness on me foreverÃ¢â¬ ¦I sank on the chair, and sobbed aloudÃ¢â¬ ¦`Now is the time! Ã¢â¬âsave and protect me! You and your family are the friends whom I seek. Do no t desert me in my hour of trial! Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ (Shelly 111) When the rest of the family came in, Agatha fainted, Sophie ran, and Felix beat him with a stick. This robbed him of his chance to be happy. He was jealous of the fact that every human could have friendly interactions, but he was doomed to loneliness forever.The monster now realized he could never be happy. This enraged him, and hatred became his fueling emotion! Hatred is the most prevailing emotion. It consumes people and turns them into the violent human beings who they actually are. The monster cursed the human race, and vowed revenge quoting, Ã¢â¬Å"My feelings were those of rage and revenge. I could with pleasure have destroyed the cottage and its inhabitants and have glutted myself with their shrieks and misery. (Shelly 113) The monster did in fact get his revenge. He hated the fact that Victor had close friends and loved ones, yet he had nothing.This made the monster turn to violence, and he killed everyone close t o Victor. 2001Ã¢â¬â¢s creation, HAL, has a different emotion which leads to his downfall. That is the emotion of pride. You see, pride is a feeling of pleasure from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own achievements. HAL was very prideful. You can glimpse it from this shot conversation HAL has during an interview: INTERVIEWER: HAL, you have an enormous responsibility on this mission. You're the brain, and central nervous system of the ship, and your responsibilities include watching over the men in hibernation.Does this ever cause you any lack of confidence? HAL: Let me put it this way, Mr. Amor. The 9000 series is the most reliable computer ever made. No 9000 computer has ever made a mistake or distorted information. We are all, by any practical definition of the words, foolproof and incapable of error. Here, HAL takes pride in the fact that his 9000 series model has never made an error. But when HAL predicts a communication relay to go down, a 9000 computer on Earth says HAL is wrong with his predic tion.HAL quickly disbands this as human error, since HAL now sees himself as better than human. HAL also thinks that he is better capable to carry out the mission than anybody onboard. When HAL hears he may be disconnected, he goes berserk and kills everyone onboard until David Bowman shuts hit down. HALÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall was because he had too much pride. We see this in the modern world all the time; people thinking they are better than others because of their achievements. In the pursuit of happiness, somewhere along the way, people will become jealous of others.They will want something someone else has, and they may not be able to get it. This in turn will cause them to hate or resent that person. They may lash out against them with words, or like the monster, will do whatever they can to strip that person of their happiness. But suppose you do become happy and rise to the top? The people in power almost always become prideful and abuse that power. Take dictatorships for example. They end up abusing their power, and think they are better than others. Ultimately, emotion is humanities greatest weakness.
Monday, July 29, 2019
And Analysis of Business Problems - Research Paper Example Kellogg enjoyed higher growth rate from 2007 to 2009 and after that it had quite steady growth rate till 2011. On the other hand, General Mills had quite volatile revenue growth because revenue decreased from 2008 to 2010 and again increased in 2011. From the above table it can be said that, General Mills had higher revenue than Kellogg each of the last five years. Most recent personal decision that I have made is job preference. I have developed job preference for best suitable job for me after completing my study. As a student of business management, I would have multiple job opportunities in diverse areas of corporate sector. Most suitable options that are under my level of competence and knowledge are trainee business analyst, strategic marketing analyst and business development executive. These are the three alternative career fields for my future from numbers of major areas. Business analysis is most wide area among these three. It involves detailed analysis of all areas of a business like marketing, finance, operations, manpower management etc. Therefore, all four major areas of business management study and I can evaluate my core strength are from these four major areas and can chose that as major area in future. Second job preference is strategic marketing analysis which involves development of marketing planning for new product and service and also redesigning of existing marketing plans. This would help me to implement my marketing knowledge and develop marketing as a major area of my future career. Third job opportunity is business development executive which involves generating sales for the company by selling product and services offered by the company. This area covers organizations of all sectors and industry. It is quite tough at trainee or fresher level until some client base is developed. Therefore, most of companies ask for experienced can didates. From the most
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Enterprie Architecture (Enterprise 2.0 memo) - Essay Example That means the collective intelligence will help employees find information and reach solutions in a much easier way. Secondly, it ensures effective flow of information which results in satisfactory decisions in a compliant manner. On the one hand, the opinion of customers and other stakeholders is available and on the other, the need for compliance is analyzed by availing the necessary information. That means, the decisions taken will be compliant with the rules and regulations and, at the same time, free from skepticism from various stakeholders. In fact, proper communication with stakeholders in the financial sector helps improve company image. As the information regarding various decisions and transactions remain transparent to the stakeholders, they feel increased participation in the decision-making process. As the stakeholders get a chance to express their opinion about various decisions, Enterprise 2.0 becomes the most effective way of communication with stakeholders. Moreover, as each stakeholder gets a chance to know the opinion of many other stakeholders, the company executives will save a lot of time which they usually spend detailing the plans to each and every stakeholder. Also, the ratings provided by the existing consumers will encourage new potential investors as the opinion of the existing consumers is the most influencing factor. Yet another important point is the need to recruit and train new Gen Y people. It seems that the new recruits will be more inclined towards gathering information from electronic sources rather than printed ones. That means, the company needs to develop such an image where information flow is electronic, transparent, accessible and user-friendly. Such an image will help recruit new people, and once selected, the new recruits will find it easy to get access to information and solution as they remain in touch with peers, policy
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Healthymagination at GE (General Electric ) - Essay Example Additionally, these quantitative measures and site certification is audited by GEÃ¢â¬â¢s audit staff and is obligatory for campuses with in excess of 100 employees. As the company grows, its goal is to reach every employee in spite of site size. The introduction of Electronic medical records came with the potential to revolutionize healthcare by calculating administrative costs through superior effectiveness, improved correctness and broader admission to the latest clinical data (Glader, 2009). With these features the workflow is streamlined, it allow doctors to share information steadily, GEÃ¢â¬â¢s Centricity EMR brings the newest technology to bear on the test of managing several patient records around the globe. What makes GE to act this way is its commitment to patient-centered innovation that focuses on safety, clinical solutions as well as a customized environment for even the youngest patients. 2 GE is more diversified compared to the past. The creation of the GE healthyma gination Fund shows GEÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to improvement in healthcare as a means to promoting the objectives of visibly increasing access to healthcare at the same time improving the quality along with reducing the delivery cost (McGregor, 2009). The company also gives support to the development of companies with inventive technologies as well as business models that share in the broader healthymagination goals. A s a way to further diversify the company, it additionally on receiving growth capital in addition to expertise in investment, the fundÃ¢â¬â¢s investment partners have the opportunity to cooperatively work with a global leader in healthcare technology in areas with mutual interest, which includes technology development and global distribution What led the company to diversification was to combat the crisis of healthcare access. Healthymagination has a goal to offer Better Health for additional People around the world. While focusing on technologies that are simpler, eas ier-to-use and more portable devices, those who lack sufficient healthcare right now, may for the very first time get access to an adequate diagnosis, an opportunity at surgery, or the ways to save the childÃ¢â¬â¢s life (Glader, 2010). When we specifically focus on anesthesia equipment, GE committed a center team that focused on anesthesia products to work together with international hospitals Anesthesiologists for research along with development for use of GE ICU/anesthesia products geared to low-income countries. This has led the company to knowing its market and its business significantly better than any time in history. The company has put in place financial models and levers that it uses to drive our performance. It also has clear strategies with plans of action for all of it divisions. It also engages in investing in its people and has specific plans to increase accountable leaders that will drive change (Mark, 2008). 3 In 2009, General Electric publicized that in the next s ix years it would spend $3 billion in creating at least 100 health-care innovations that were intended to substantially lower costs, increase accessibility, and along with improve quality (Scott and Corporate Environmental Data Clearinghouse, 1992). The company highlighted two products at the time; a $1,000 electrocardiogram device and a PC-based ultrasound machine that
Friday, July 26, 2019
Fungi as a source of food - Essay Example There is vitamin d2 production when ergosterols in mushrooms are exposed to ultraviolet light. Fungi have certain interesting twists especially when one zeros down to the mushrooms. In the ancient Egypt for example, mushrooms were exclusively believed to be foods for the royalties. The unique flavors intrigued the powerful pharaohs to the extent of declaring them illegal for the commoners to consume. In china, Greece, Mexico, Russia and Latin America, the practice of mushroom rituals took place. They believed that mushrooms possessed properties capable of producing super human strengths. They also believed that mushrooms could help recover lost objects, and take the human soul to the presence of the gods (Phillips and Reid 62). Edible fungi like mushroom have been in consumption since the 18th century. France prides early leadership in the farming of mushrooms with certain accounts stating that Louis XIV being the first mushroom grower. Mushrooms were grown near Paris in special caves set aside for this activity. Mushroom farming later spread to England since the farmers there found it very easy to grow. It demanded low investments, less labor and space. Mushroom farming found its way to the United States in the 19th century though the growers there largely depended on the spawn they imported from England (Phillips and Reid 32). A book was published in 1891 shedding a lot of light on mushroom growing. Immediately after, the department of agriculture in the U.S allocated some money in research and produced a pure-culture virgin spawn cutting their dependency on imported spawn. The growth of mushroom production has since then achieved great development in the U.S. Recent research by scientists on hallucinogen psilocybin, which is an active ingredient in mushrooms, shows that one dose causes serious positive personality change in their patients. The changes were
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Acc#5 Farm Financial Standards Council Model Case - Essay Example GM has adopted traditional cost allocation system wherein the overheads are arbitrarily allocated to the products on the basis of the labor or machine hours. It produces only one product i.e. the corvette and as such apportionment of overhead costs may not be such a big problem except for the fluctuations of production volumes which may distort the contribution margin figures. John & Mary Farmer on the other hand produce two products namely: corn and soybean that too in two farms, for which there are a variety of cost drivers which have to be identified to diversified activities to estimate the differences in cost of production between farms and overall profitability between commodities produced in different years. While adopting traditional cost allocation system, as in GM, may be easier for accounting purposes, it actually does not serve the purpose of arriving at a specific cost structure especially when the direct labor component is in small proportion in the total production process owing to the present automation taking place even in the farming sector. 1. Overheads would have been charged according to the production volumes which may fluctuate from time to time. Hence, the accurate per unit contribution margin which is the basis for competitive managerial decisions in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world would be misguiding. 3. The products produced in the case study are corn and soybean that too in different fields of which few are owned by the firm and the others are taken on lease. With such diversified methodology of tie ups with different parties, if ABC is not undertaken, the differences in the production would not be useful in providing effective strategy to minimize risk associated with the business and enhance profitability. 4. With the growing mechanization even in the farm sector, the importance of direct expenses is shrunk day by day
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Explain how schooling and earnings are related and how a Mincer function estimates the rate of return to schooling. What problem - Essay Example This premium has increased since the 1970s. It means that the employers in different sectors value workers who are more educated (Steve, 2006). The set of abilities and skills that different individuals bring to the market is called human capital. Schooling is an investment in the human capital. This is so because it delivers skills that are specialized and boosts the productivity of workers. As a result, levels of education that are higher generally lead to an increased power of earning (Boniface, 1999). Different researches have been able to show that each year one spends in school improves their annual earning by ten per cent (Melvin, 1991). However, one should way the options of attending work to furthering their education. This choice is called the Ã¢â¬Å"opportunity costÃ¢â¬ or the true price of education. A person who seeks to maximize his future earnings should choose remaining in school to learn more if only the long-run payout in an additional year in school is able to s urpass the opportunity cost (Vade, 2012). The impact caused by schooling on the different levels of earning carries a significant weight for the decision making of persons as well as the policy makers. With the theories of education and earning in the United Kingdom and the averaged ten per cent return rate annually, schooling represents among the finest investment any given government can make for the period of financial limitations and scarce resources. Through subsidizing education, the policy creators are able to ensure that education is more affordable and more accessible. It is argued that investment in the sector of education is a sure way for good result of an economy and the standard of living for the people who have low incomes. (Ruben, 1999). The Wage-schooling locus is a theory based on the total amount of earnings that different firms are ready to pay their employees for a given level of schooling. According to the theory, different workers with different educational le vel have different amount of salaries (Helen, 2005). The more one is educated the more his or her salary per annum. There are certain properties that a wage-schooling locus has. The locus slopes upwards. The upward sloping curve shows that more education is needed in the market and an increase in the level of education has an increasing effect on the salaries of employees (Jackson, 1997). This curve indicates an earnings increase associated with one year additional of education. The wage-schooling locus curve is concave. This indicates that there is a diminishing rate of return to the accumulation of human capital. Each additional year of education yields less knowledge increase and a lower additional earning compared to previous years (Else, 1999). A year increase in education leads to an increase in salaries but at a reducing rate. The wage-schooling locus indicates the salary which a worker would get after completing a certain level of education (Reuben, 1990). If this worker wer e a high school graduate, he or she would earn $ 21,000 in a year. If the worker advances his or her education for one year in college, his or her returns will increase to $ 24,000, according to this graph. Dollars 24,000 21,000 12 13 14 Years of schooling Mincer function Mincer was able to come up with an earning natural logarithm model. This model is a function of the education years and the years of the
Macro--economic - Essay Example It will recover at some point, but we are probably two or three years away." 2. Introduction In February 2011, the Obama administration issued Ã¢â¬Å"Reforming AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Housing Finance MarketÃ¢â¬ (Reforming AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Housing Finance Market Ã¢â¬â A Report To Congress, accessed 8 May, 2011). The extensive ranging and significant study was motivated by the view that: Ã¢â¬Å"The housing finance system must be reformed. It is the vital link to sustainable home ownership and rental options for millions of Americans, and it is central to our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. We allowed its flaws to go unchecked for too long, contributing to a financial collapse that strained families, decimated communities, and pushed the economy into the worst recession since the Great DepressionÃ¢â¬ (p.31). Since the housing market in the US is undergoing a period of depression even now, an analysis of the article with regard to aggregate demand and aggregate supply of the housing market is discussed in this report. Apart from this all other relevant areas of macro economics will be discussed with a summary at the end of the report as a conclusion will be added. 3.1 Macroeconomics According to Gwartney et al, (2006) macroeconomics is a part of the study of economics which centers on the aggregate economic system. Macroeconomics examines the economy at a national/global level and is related with the economy as a whole. According to Susan Wachter et al (2010), "Housing, which usually leads us out of recession and into recovery, will be a lagging indicator this time. Consumers will look to the health of the whole economy to decide whether to make a home purchase or not." 3.2 Analysis of macroeconomics with regard to housing situation in the US: CASE-SHILLER HOUSE PRICE INDEXES U.S. Home Price Index Quarterly 2000-2010 Source: Bloomberg The above graph shows that the rising fall of the house prices nationwide has exceeded 32% from the 2006 peak, as measured by the Case- S hiller House Price Index (chart). Almost five million households have lost their homes through legal proceedings or short selling. With the exclusion of house prices and legal proceeding, the majority housing-linked standards have reached the bottom, but a healthy revival is doubtful (Bloomberg). The fundamental issue with the residential housing market is linked to a constant imbalance between supply and demand. The basic demand for housing stays gloomy while the supply of unsold homes stays disproportionate. The result is evident as sales of homes are Home sales are dormant, new construction stays exceptionally low, and nationwide house prices carry on to weaken. The demand for housing is also at a low range inspite of low-cost in most major markets. This has led to negative look at the house prices by the consumers and new house hold creation has decreased by 50%. The supply also is on the decrease because there were massive number of houses built during 2000-2007 and record numb er of foreclosures (Bloomberg). 3.3 Aggregate demand curves Source: McConnell, 2010 Aggregate demand curve depicts the quantities of real GDP that purchasers jointly want to buy at each potential price level. The correlation between the price level and the quantity of real GDP required is reverse or negative. In reality with every increase in the real GDP
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Comparative Study of US Dollar and Euro - Essay Example Apart from its superior position in markets around the world US Dollar seems as more prepared, compared to other currencies, to face long term economic pressures. Reference is made in particular to Euro, a currency that has challenged the hegemony of US Dollar in global market. Current paper provides a comparative analysis of the two currencies. Emphasis is also given on the factors which have mostly affected the performance of these currencies, especially in regard to 2009 onwards. The financial recession of 2008 and the Euro zone debt crisis, that followed, are used as key events for the evaluation of the potentials of the two currencies in the future. In general, the US Dollar is proved to be stronger both in case of unexpected turbulences and in case of long term economic downturns. 2. US Dollar v Euro Ã¢â¬â Comparative analysis 2.1 Value of US Dollar compared to Euro The value of US Dollar towards Euro has faced important fluctuations. The turbulences in the global financial market, as related to the Euro Debt Crisis, have led to the decrease of the value of Euro, compared to US Dollar. Indeed, In January 2012 the value of Euro reached the $1.274 (Index Mundi 2012), which is rather low compared to the currencyÃ¢â¬â¢s value in the past. For example, in January of 2011 the value of Euro was estimated at $1.3371 (Index Mundi 2012). Up to July 2012, the value of Euro towards that of US Dollar was significantly decreased a fact that was related to the continuous deterioration of the Euro Debt Crisis. In July 20 of 2012 the value of Euro reached the $1.2176 (Index Mundi 2012), a quite low level. This fact has caused severe concerns to the leaders of EU. The threat of a potential collapse of the Euro zone had appeared. In order to understand the position of Euro towards the US Dollar it would be necessary to refer to the fluctuations in the value of these currencies for the last four years, i.e. from 2009 up to 2012. In this way, it would be made clear wheth er the power of the two currencies in the global market is equal or whether one of them is at an advantageous position. During 2009 the value of Euro was decreased at a level of 20%, compared to 2008. The global financial crisis of that period has been probably the key reason for the above phenomenon. At the end of the above year the value of Euro was estimated to $1.43 (Index Mundi 2012). The year that followed, 2010, the value of Euro was further decreased; by the end of 2010 the value of Euro was fell to $1.32 (Index Mundi 2012). Again, the Euro Debt crisis, which has appeared to be more intensive in Greece, has been related to the further limitation of the value of Euro towards that of US Dollar (Index Mundi 2012). During 2011 the distance between the two currencies was further decreased. In the beginning of 2011 the Euro seemed as able to increase its power as a global currency. Indeed, the introduction of effective measures in regard to the Greece debt crisis has caused pressu res on US dollar; during the first months of 2011 the US dollar lost a 10% of its value (Index Mundi 2012). At the same time, Euro was strengthened reaching the $1.4675 by July 2011 (Index Mundi 2012). It seems that investors were, still, afraid of investing on US Dollar due to the US Debt crisis of 2008, especially since the above crisis resulted to a global recession. Moreover, it was in that period that the interest rate in the EU was increased to 1.5%, a fact that highly favored the Euro towards the
Monday, July 22, 2019
Watson and the reader Essay A red herring for the police, which again showed that Mrs Maloney could never kill Patrick, was the fact that she was pregnant and they were about to have a baby together so why would she ant to kill Patrick? Mrs Maloney is always leading the blame of herself. This is totally different to The speckled band because Dr Roylott comes to visit Holmes and is aggressive, violent and out of control which is making Holmes, Watson and the reader that he is capable of killing someone. In the Lamb to the slaughter it is doing exactly the opposite and making the police and the reader think that is wouldnt be able to do such a thing. Another occasion where she is leading the police away from her is when she says I hope you catch him. Again its putting the blame on to a totally different person. I hope you catch him.Ã After we had looked at the clues and red herrings in both stories in great detail we began to compare the different methods of investigation in both stories.Ã When we looked at The speckled band I noticed that Holmes was very observant in his investigations. Holmes examines every minor detail with great care and does it more than once. He doesnt have any scientific equipment all he has is a magnify glass. Holmes makes all the decisions whereas Watson follows him and does as he says. Sherlock suspects everyone and everything and relies on his instinct, all this brings him closer to the villain. For example, when he is looking at the Stoke Moran place he looks in great detail at everything especially Dr Roylotts room and that brings him to the conclusion that the doctor is involved, the iron safe, the milk, the dog lash and the chair with foot prints on. When he talks to Helen he makes her go over the story a few times and asks her questions on it and he makes sure he has got the full story and got it correct. Holmes has solved many cases even though he has little technology, he has solved over seventy cases. Sherlock uses methods of deduction like I have mentioned, milk, lash, vent, and bell rope and so on.Ã Sherlock discovers motive and method using precise investigation. Holmes causes the murders death by setting the snake back to the doctors room after it has been hit. Dr Roylott is killed and punished and Holmes has saved Helen Stoner, Holmes has saved the day and everyone is happy. After we has examined The speckled band we looked at the methods of investigation in Lamb to the slaughter they were quite the opposite. In The speckled band Holmes only had himself and a magnify glass whereas in Lamb to the slaughter the police force had forensic scientists, photographers and a lot of men to help with the murder.Ã First a doctor, then two detectives. Later, a police photographer arrived and took pictures, and a man who knew about fingerprints. In this way they could get time of death, have more accurate tests and they could do a post-mortem. The speckled band and Lamb to the slaughter did have a similarity because both detectives searched the house for clues but in Lamb to the slaughter they we unsuccessful unlike Sherlock Holmes. The police force did not really investigate Mrs Maloney, which isnt very professional. In Lamb to the slaughter the police questioned more people than just Mrs Maloney, for example, the green grocer. In The speckled band Holmes didnt ask anyone else and managed to solve the case but the police in Lamb to the slaughter didnt find the murderer. In Lamb to the slaughter the police get to examine the body and dont solve the case whereas Holmes doesnt get that opportunity but still solves the case. The police take some alcoholic drink from Mrs Maloney and then eat the murder weapon. This is very wrong and very unprofessional, and once they have eaten the meat, (murder weapon), they have no chance of solving the case. Holmes and Watson would never do this and they are very professional and take their job very serious. At the end of Lamb to the slaughter the police do not find the murder weapon when it is right under their noses and Holmes finds out what has killed Julia and he didnt know what he was looking for. When Holmes was investigating there was a lot of red herrings for him. In Lamb to the slaughter there are few and they know what kind of instrument killed Patrick. Her husband, he told her, had been killed by a blow on the back of the head administered with a heavy blunt instrument.Ã If Sherlock Holmes were on Detective Maloneys case he probably would have solved the case because he would look very carefully at the evidence and observe every minor detail. Holmes would have carefully observed Mrs Maloneys actions and mood like he did in The speckled band with Helen Stoner. Also Holmes would have never eaten or drank anything. It might have taken Holmes and Watson longer but I think he would have solved the case in the end. The two stories, The speckled band and Lamb to the slaughter have totally different settings. In The speckled band it is set in the nineteenth century and Helen, Julia and Dr Roylott live in a large house isolated in the countryside. Helen, Julia and the Doctor each have there separate rooms. They are of the upper class. You can tell this because the house is very large and you can even tell by the name, Stoke Moran.Ã I am Dr Grimsby Roylott, of Stoke Moran. Only three people lived in the house before Julia died. Although Dr Roylott was of the upper class he didnt have a lot of money, which is the main reason why he murdered Julia and tried to murder Helen.Ã Because it was set in the nineteenth century the transports was much different too nowadays because a car was not a popular as they are today. People had to travel by train and dogcart, which are much slower, compared to the transport in the twentieth century.Ã You could tell that Dr Roylott was of the upper class because of the way he dressed. He costume was a peculiar mixture of the professional and agricultural, having a black top hat, a long frock-coat, and a pair of high gaiters, with a hunting crop swinging in his hand.Ã As you can see from this quote he dressed professionally but how he wanted. Only the high class would dress to this standard.Ã Dr Roylott, Helen and Julia were not very sociable. You know this because in the story they live in an isolated place, in the country, and nobody likes to get into Dr Roylott way because he is a fierce man and a violent one. You know that the doctor is a violent man because he has a past record of throwing a blacksmith into a stream. Last week he hurled the local blacksmith over a parapet into a stream.Ã We then looked at the settings, location and the social conditions in Lamb to the slaughter. We found that it was much different to The speckled band mostly because it was set in a different time to The speckled band. Whereas in The speckled band it was set in the nineteenth century, Lamb to the slaughter was set in the twentieth century, and the family was a middle class. You knew this because they lived in a normal sized house in a normal neighbourhood with a local green grocer and Patrick Maloney was a police detective. Mr and Mrs Maloney would have shared their own room whereas in The speckled band each person had their separate room. Although the Maloneys are middle class they still had a bit of money. You can tell this because they go out every Thursday and they have plenty of food in the house, also Patrick drinks whiskey, which is quite expensive.Ã If youre too tired to eat out, she went on, its still not too late. There is plenty of meat and stuff in the freezer.Ã Dr Roylott is very clever because he knows how to hide the evidence from linking him to Julias death but Jack is also clever as he is a detective and has been for some years. Mr and Mrs Maloney are very sociable people because they are known throughout the neighbourhood. The local green grocer, Sam, knows them. Hullo Sam, she said brightly, smiling at the man behind the counter.Ã You also know that they are very sociable because when Mrs Maloney has murdered Patrick and the police men come she knows them and they treat her really nice because they know each other. This is nothing like The speckled band because Dr Roylott is very unsociable. Patrick Maloney is smartly dressed because of his job, he dresses in a suit which was smart for when the story is set. You dont know how Mrs Maloney is dressed because it doesnt describe her but I expect she would be dressed quite smartly. This is a similarity to The speckled band because all the characters are dressed smartly.Ã There was a lot of suspense in The speckled band all the way the story. The first dose of major suspense is when Helen stoner has only just left Holmes place after telling about Dr Roylott and Julias death and the doctor walks in furiously. He bursts in the door uninvited and starts to bellow at Holmes asking about what Helen has been telling him. Holmes just keeps cool and laughs at him when he is calling him. There is suspense here because Dr Roylott is being very violent and aggressive and you dont know what he is going to do. You are asking yourself is going to hit Sherlock Holmes with his hunting crop? You dont know what he is going to do so while you reading the story you are on the edge of your seat.Ã What has she been saying to you? screamed the old man furiously.Ã Ha you put me off, do you? said our new visitor, taking a step forward, and shaking his hunting crop. I know you scoundrel! I have heard of you before. You are Holmes the meddler.Ã My friend smiled.Ã This is a very tense section of the story because you just dont have a clue what he is going to do.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Authors illustrate what is creativity What is creativity? (not meant to provide an encyclopedic view of its primary object-matter Creativity has a rich and long history. Yet, the intriguing thing about it is that most people feel intuitively what creativity is, but find it hard to define it. The cause is the terms complexity and vagueness. There is, in fact, no single, authoritative perspective or definition of creativity. A few Ã¢â¬Å"personal definitionsÃ¢â¬ by various famous authors may illustrate this disparity of views: Originality is the essence of true scholarship. Creativity is the soul of the true scholar. Nnamdi Azikiwe The creative person is both more primitive and more cultivated, more destructive, a lot madder and a lot saner, than the average person. Frank Barron Make visible what, without you, might perhaps never have been seen. Robert Bresson A hunch is creativity trying to tell you something. Frank Capra I have great belief in the fact that whenever there is chaos, it creates wonderful thinking. I consider chaos a gift. Septima Poinsette Clark Our inventions mirror our secret wishes. Lawrence Durrell Ã¢â¬Å"The creative individual is a person who regularly solves problems, fashions products, or defines new questions in a domain that is initially considered novel but that ultimately becomes accepted in a particular cultural setting.Ã¢â¬ Howard Gardner (1993): From things that have happened and from things as they exist and from all things that you know and all those you cannot know, you make something through your invention that is not a representation but a whole new thing truer than anything true and alive, and you make it alive, and if you make it well enough, you give it immortality. That is why you write and for no other reason that you know of. But what about all the reasons that no one knows? Ernest Hemingway Everything vanishes around me, and works are born as if out of the void. Ripe, graphic fruits fall off. My hand has become the obedient instrument of a remote will. Paul Klee An essential aspect of creativity is not being afraid to fail. Edwin Land The artist produces for the liberation of his soul. It is his nature to create as it is the nature of water to run down the hill. W. Somerset Maugham Creativity is not merely the innocent spontaneity of our youth and childhood; it must also be married to the passion of the adult human being, which is a passion to live beyond ones death. Rollo May When all is said and done, monotony may after all be the best condition for creation. Margaret Sackville Our current obsession with creativity is the result of our continued striving for immortality in an era when most people no longer believe in an after-life. Arianna Stassinopoulos Ã¢â¬Å"The ability to produce work that is both novel (original or unexpected) appropriate. The creative individual persists in the face of resistance.Ã¢â¬ Robert J. Sternberg (1992) In order to create there must be a dynamic force, and what force is more potent than love? Igor Stravinsky The imagination imitates. It is the critical spirit that creates. Oscar Wilde Ã¢â¬Å"Creativity is the ability to illustrate what is outside the box from within the box.Ã¢â¬ -The Ride It is almost as if you were frantically constructing another world while the world that you live in dissolves beneath your feet, and that your survival depends on completing this construction at least one second before the old habitation collapses. Tennessee Williams A line will take us hours maybe; Yet if it does not seem a moments thought, Our stitching and unstitching has been naught. W. B. Yeats What, then, is Creativity? Firstly, here is what it is not: Its not just a faculty reserved for artists (musicians, painters, actors), only for writers/authors, scientists, business leaders, or academic Ã¢â¬Ëstars Its not just for children. Throughout our lives it is a part of us and of our personality. Some people display and apply it more than others, and by doing so it defines their lives. Creativity is timeless. Verdi composed Falstaff at the age of 80. Titian painted many of his best works late in life, and lived to be 100. Tolstoy wrote Resurrection ten years before his death, 82 years old. Creativity has several meanings defined by the transitions Person?Process?Product The meaning of creativity is descriptive: Johnny is so creative! = Person The meaning of creativity is a happening: Children lose track of time when immersed in play = Process The meaning of creativity is the end result: What is produced or completed. = Product (www.sla.org/conf/conf_sar//Barrancotto%20-%20creativity.ppt ) A commonly accepted view of creativity is that it is a mental and social process resulting in the generation of new ideas, terms or concepts. In rare instances these new ideas, terms, or concepts may be original, i. e. unknown previously. Most often, however, they emerge as a result of new combinations of known (existing) ideas or concepts, improvements on them, and associations between them. The mental and social process called creativity must run in some real or virtual environment. This environment has been studied from many points of view and in many scientific disciplines, for instance in philosophy, behavioral and social psychology, psychometrics, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, economics, business, and management. The studies have focused on everyday creativity, exceptional creativity and even artificial (computer enhanced) creativity. The results of the studies show clearly and convincingly that whatever approach is creative in one field of human endeavor can hardly be applied directly in a different field and produce creative results. Thus, an approach that leads to some creative results in, say, mathematics or psychology, will not necessarily produce any creative results in art, business, or psychology. The studies, however, have not lead to any unique and generally applicable definition of creativity. In the absence of a generally valid and accepted definition of creativity, it is always possible to set up a pragmatic set of requirements creativity should satisfy. They might run as follows: Creativity must result in something Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ as perceived by the people involved. The term new can have a variety of meanings, possibly requiring litigations to prove the validity of this or that meaning. Creativity must result in something that in the eyes of the creators is Ã¢â¬Å"betterÃ¢â¬ . Again what is better? It is a matter of individual or group choice and preference. At this point, we disregard ethical issues stemming from situations in which the creative effort of an individual or a group leads to something Ã¢â¬Å"betterÃ¢â¬ is perceived as something (considerably) Ã¢â¬Å"worseÃ¢â¬ by another individual or group. Creativity must affect the human life in some way. This implies that the creative result can be or has been implemented, often by technical means. Creativity, as considered in this book, reflects the creativity of the typical segment of the human population, rather than the unique blend of ability, motivation and serendipity dramatically exceeding the social and psychological norm, and resulting in major breakthroughs. Such exceptional abilities were manifested in the works of Leonardo da Vinci, Mozart, or Fuller, to name a few exceptionally creative people. Creativity is a property inseparable from the creative man. It does not exist suspended in the nowhere. For this reason, a number of psychologists studied the circumstances under which creativity in man manifests and what the peculiarities of that person are. Before we review the most significant research efforts, it is good to review briefly the fields of human activity in which creativity has played a major part. Creativity in various contexts There are many perspectives and contexts in which creativity and its importance can and must be studied. This plurality of of views of creativity makes it hard, if not impossible, to file creativity under a single heading. The simplest solution is to consider the various approaches as undisciplinary, rather than trying to form a coherent overall view. The following sections examine some of the areas in which creativity is seen as being important. Creativity in psychology and cognitive science Psychology and cognitive science are the primary arenas for the study of the mental and social process resulting in the generation of new ideas, terms or concepts and any other forms of creative thought. A large number of famous psychologists have contributed to the study of the mental and social processes. Their work is reviewed in a separate section. Examples of psychological thinking and research can, however, be found in most branches of human endeavor. (A psychodynamic approach to understanding creativity was proposed by Sigmund Freud, who suggested that creativity arises as a result of frustrated desires for fame, fortune, and love, with the energy that was previously tied up in frustration and emotional tension in the neurosis being sublimated into creative activity. Freud later retracted this view.) Creativity in science and mathematics Mathematics is a highly abstract discipline that, nevertheless, permeates more and more other disciplines. At the same time, mathematics scares most students. From the point of creative thinking it is therefore natural to ask: How does a mathematician think to produce something new, better, and affecting the human life? Several outstanding mathematicians have described their thinking and summarized their views of creative mathematical thinking. The French mathematician Jacques Hadamard described the process in his book Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, using introspection. Hadamards thinking differs from that of authors for whom language and cognition are inseparable in that it is, in his own words, wordless and often accompanied by mental images. Hadamard asked 100 leading physicists in the beginning of the previous century how they arrived at their problem solutions. Among his test subjects were giants of science, like Gauss, PoincarÃ ©, Helmholtz. He found that many of the responses were the same as his own, i. e. They viewed the whole solution suddenly and spontaneously (Hadamard, 1954, pp. 13-16). Helmholtz and PoincarÃ © ere personalities of their own class. ***** Referring to Helmholtz, Hadamards process comprises four steps (i) preparation, (ii) incubation, (iv) illumination, and (v) verification. It thus differs from the five-step model proposed by Graham Wallas in that Step (iii) intimation, was left out (ibid. p. 56). Another outstanding mathematician interested (in his latter days) in the methodology of problem solving was George Polya, of the ETH, Zurich. He wrote four books on the methods that people use to solve problems, and to describe how problem solving should be taught and learned. The books (the publication year is that of the issue used) are: How to Solve It (2004), Mathematical Discovery:On Understanding, Learning, and Teaching Problem Solving (1981); Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning Volume I: Induction and Analogy in Mathematics (1990), and Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning Volume II: Patterns of Plausible Reasoning (1990). The most important among these books probably is How to Solve It, in which Polya provides general heuristics for solving problems of all kinds, including mathematical ones. The book offers advice for teaching students of mathematics and comprises a mini-encyclopedia of heuristic terms. It sold over one million copies and was translated into many languages. Other mathematicians who made statements on the topic of problem solving include G. H. Hardy and Marie-Louise von Franz. In his Mathematicians Apology (1941), Hardy states, among others: I am interested in mathematics only as a creative art. The mathematicians patterns, like the painters or the poets must be beautiful; the ideas, like the colours or the words must fit together in a harmonious way. Beauty is the first test: there is no permanent place in this world for ugly mathematics. A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a maker of patterns. If his patterns are more permanent than theirs, it is because they are made with ideas. I believe that mathematical reality lies outside us, that our function is to discover or observe it, and that the theorems which we prove, and which we describe grandiloquently as our Ã¢â¬Å"creations,Ã¢â¬ are simply the notes of our observations (Hardy, 1941). Marie-Louise von Franz collaborated with psychiatrist Carl Jung who worked on archetypes and patterns. According to Jung, archetypes organize images and ideas. This is an unconscious process that cannot be detected until afterwards. Marie-Louise von Franz discovered an important recurring factor: the simultaneity with which the complete solution is intuitively perceived and can be checked later by discursive reasoning (von Franz, 1992). Creativity in diverse cultures Creativity is a scientific concept that is mostly rooted within a Western creationist perspective. FranÃ §ois Jullien (1997, 1989) examines the concept from a Chinese cultural point of view. Julliens point of departure is the necessity to work on reducing the distance that separates the Chinese and the European modes of thinking, and restart philosophy. Fangqi Xu et al. (2005) reported on the availability of creativity courses in various countries. Lubart and Sternberg (1999) studied extensively the cultural aspects of creativity and innovation. The authors conclude that creativity, like intelligence, is something everybody possesses. Creativity can be developed. Creative people are able to generate/intuit new and possibly unpopular ideas. They can also work with determination to make these ideas accepted by others. Creative people have the willingness to take sensible risks to go against the crowd in effective ways. Creativity in art and literature Requirements on creativity in the arts and literature differ from the requirements in other fields. While in most fields of the human endeavor, both originality and appropriateness are necessary (Amabile, 1998), in the fields of art and literature creativity is reduced to originality only, as a sufficient condition. Yet, the fields of art and literature for most people represent the true domain of creativity. The different modes of artistic expression do not represent an entirely homogeneous environment. Yet, a continuum extending from Ã¢â¬Å"interpretationÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"innovationÃ¢â¬ can be postulated in all established artistic movements and genres. Here, practitioners gravitate to the interpretation end of the scale, whereas original thinkers strive towards the innovation pole. In spite of this coarse division, some Ã¢â¬Å"creativeÃ¢â¬ people (dancers, actors, orchestral members, etc.) are expected to perform (interpret), while others (writers, painters, composers, etc.) get more freedom to express the new and the different. In judging theories of art, several alternatives can be considered. One alternative is the artistic inspiration, comparable to invention. It provides a taste of Ã¢â¬Å"the DivineÃ¢â¬ in the form of transmission of visions from Ã¢â¬Å"divine sourcesÃ¢â¬ such as the Muses. Another alternative is the artistic evolution, comparable to crafts. It focuses on obeying established rules and imitating or appropriating, which results in subtly different but conflict-free and understandable work. Finally, if the creative product is the language, there is the artistic conversation, as in any Ã¢â¬Å"-ism,Ã¢â¬ stressing the depth of communication. One of the basic questions in looking at artistic creativity, given the uniqueness of the artistic product, is the question of authorship. Many scholars have worked on it. Two rather similar views, even though a generation apart, are the views of the French philosopher Michel Foucault and the Serbian scholar Davor DÃâ¦Ã ¾alto. Foucault claims that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He exemplifies his thesis by the fact that a private letter may have a writer it does not have an author (Foucault, 1969). An author, according to Foucault, exists only as a function of a written work, as a part of its structure. However, the interpretive process is Ã¢â¬Å"the author function.Ã¢â¬ Thus, for a reader to assign the title of author to the writer of any written work is to confirm that certain standards of the text are working in conjunction with Foucaults idea of Ã¢â¬Å"the author function.Ã¢â¬ DÃâ¦Ã ¾altos work (DÃâ¦Ã ¾alto, 2003) is based on examination of the relations between personhood and authorship in the context of the post-modern society and the globalized world. His theory stipulates that art represents an expression of the personal identity of the human being, having an existential importance. Human creativity is a basic feature of both the personal existence of the human being and art production. Creativity is thus a basic cultural and anthropological category, since it enables human manifestation in the world as a Ã¢â¬Å"real presenceÃ¢â¬ in contrast to the progressive Ã¢â¬Å"virtualizationÃ¢â¬ of the world. In other words, approaching artistic creativity Foucault focuses on the author function, whereas DÃâ¦Ã ¾alto talks about a real presence of human manifestation in the (possibly virtualized) world. Creative industries, professions and services Creativity is perceived as increasingly important in creative industries and related professions. Creative industries constitute a family of human activities that generate a non-tangible value expressible in monetary units, either by means of creating and exploiting intellectual property or by means of providing creative services. This heading covers such activities as art and antiques markets, architecture, advertising, design, fashion, film, music, performing arts, publishing, computer software services, radio, TV, and the like. Creative professions are any of those involved in the activities listed, including some aspects of scientific research and development, product development, marketing, strategy, curriculum design, some types of teaching, and similar activities. The creative professional workforce is becoming a more integral part of the economies of industrialized nations. It is estimated that in the USA alone, approximately 10 million people work as creative professionals, but there may be twice as many. Accurate estimates are difficult to make, since many creative professionals actors and writers in particular also have a secondary job. Creativity in engineering and sciences Fields such as science and engineering have experienced a less explicit (but arguably no less important) relation to creativity. Simonton is one of many authors who show how some of the major scientific advances in science and engineering can be attributed to the creativity of individuals (Simonton, 1999). Borderline cases exist, too. A good example is accounting. Ã¢â¬Å"Creative accountingÃ¢â¬ is a popular term denoting unethical practices. However, Amabile suggests that accounting, too, can benefit from creative approaches if these are kept within ethical borders (Amabile 1998). Excellent example of the Ã¢â¬Å"creative leapÃ¢â¬ can be found in the realm of sciences, be it mathematics, physics, chemistry, medicine, or any other branch of science. Isaac Newtons law of gravity is popularly attributed to a creative leap he experienced by Newton when observing a falling apple. Creativity in organizations According to Amabile, to enhance creativity in business, three components are necessary (Amabile, 1998): Expertise, i. e. technical, procedural, intellectual and tacit knowledge, creative thinking skills, i. e. the flexibility and imagination with which people approach problems, and motivation, particularly its intrinsic variety. The importance of the combination of knowledge and creativity is best exemplified by the unprecedented success of some far-eastern nations, notably Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Korea and Thailand, which have in recent years been joined by India and China. Economic views of creativity Almost a century ago, Joseph Schumpeter (1942) introduced the economic theory of creative destruction, to describe the creative way in which old ways of doing things are destroyed from within and replaced by new ways. Economists like Paul Romer see creativity as an important element in the recombination of elements to produce new technologies and products. Romer (articles published in 1986 and 1990 amounted to) constructed mathematical representations of economies in which technological change is the result of the intentional actions of people, such as research and development. This is how economic growth becomes a reality and leads to capital. Romer also saw the importance is conditions that demand change, as follows form his popular saying: Ã¢â¬Å"A crisis is a terrible thing to wasteÃ¢â¬ . Creativity is also an important aspect to understanding entrepreneurship. The creative class is seen by some to be an important driver of modern economies. In his 2002 book, The Rise of the Creative Class, economist Richard Florida popularized the notion that regions with Ã¢â¬Å"3 Ts of economic development: Technology, Talent and ToleranceÃ¢â¬ also have high concentrations of creative professionals and tend to have a higher level of economic development. Florida, R. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class. New York: Basic Books. Romer, P. (1986). Ã¢â¬Å"Increasing Returns and Long-Run GrowthÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 94, No. 5 (Oct. 1986), pp. 1002-1037. Romer, P. (1990). Ã¢â¬Å"Endogenous Technological ChangeÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 98, No. 5, Ã¢â¬Å"Part 2: The Problem of Development: A Conference on the Institute for the Study of Free Enterprise Systems.Ã¢â¬ pp. S71-102. Schumpeter, J. A. (1942). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers. 5th ed.
Scheduler Choice in Cluster Environment Clusters have become more popular and ubiquitous and the number of processors in cluster have also increased considerably. They consist of collection of a homogeneous machines or a host of diverse computational devices which collaborate via a high speed network to execute high-performance applications. Computer industry has widely accepted that future performance increases must largely come from increasing the number of processing cores on a die. This has led to NoC processors. Efficient scheduling of high performance applications on these parallel computing systems is critical to enhance their performance and to improve system throughput. It has been proved that the problem of scheduling tasks with precedence constraints is NP-Complete [Papad, 1994]. The data flow model is gaining popularity as a programming paradigm for parallel computers. Many high-performance applications are a collection of modules which have control/data dependences among them. When the characteristics of an application is fully deterministic, including tasks execution time, size of data communicated between tasks, and task dependencies, the application can be represented by a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). With an increase in the number of processing units, expressing parallelism of an application has become a major challenge. Many studies have proved that designing parallel applications using both task and data parallelism is an effective approach than pure data or pure task parallel models. This mixed parallelism achieves both higher scalability and performance. Mixed parallel applications are represented as Parallel Task Graph (PTG), a graph of data parallel tasks. Understanding the importance of task scheduling on a parallel system, an attempt is made to address issues in scheduling multiple applications with the objectives of enhancing the performance of individual applications and also increasing the throughput the parallel computing system. In this thesis, we introduce two new algorithms Level Based Scheduler (LBS) and Improved Level Based Scheduler (ILBS) to schedule parallel applications represented as parallel task graph onto a cluster of multi-core processors with the objective of reducing their completion time. Both algorithms can be used both as static or hybrid schedulers. We argue that hybrid scheduler is a good scheduler choice in a cluster environment to optimize the utilization of its resources. We state that a better way to deal with multiple applications on a cluster is through adoptive space-sharing approach with a promise to benefit both the user and the cluster administrator. In a space-sharing approach, each application is given a set of processors and it is executed on these processors only. A parallel application can be run on a varied number of processors i.e. a moldable job. Hence we argue that it is good to change processor allotment for executing applications depending on the workload on cluster. To perform initial processor allotment and subsequent adaptations if required, methods to find the optimal and maximal number of processors that an application can utilize are developed. Also a novel method to share available processors among multiple competing task graphs is proposed. A framework is developed to bring together the proposed hybrid schedulers, methods to find processor requirement of each application, the scheme to share processors among multiple applicat ions and a new policy to decide processor allotment for each submitted application. Approaches to improve scheduling on a NoC processor is attempted. An approach to make any list scheduling method more time efficient to schedule a task graph on NoC is proposed and experimented. To schedule multiple applications on NoC, the number of cores and which cores to be assigned for each application must be decided. Our belief is that this job of deciding number of cores can be better performed by the joint collaboration of the user and system instead of any one doing it alone. Hence we have developed methods to find the optimal and maximal block of cores that an application can utilize which is later used to decide the actual core allotment for each application. Policies to decide how many and which cores to be assigned for each application are suggested. All the experiments in this thesis are carried out using a discrete event simulator. Benchmark task graphs are taken from different sources, from where other researchers have taken to compare their scheduler performance. The metrics makespan and efficiency of the schedule are used. The developed LBS is compared with MCPA the most widely accepted good scheduler and EMTS the recent PTG scheduler are chosen for performance comparison. The benchmark suite includes regular task graph, random task graph and few real applications task graph. For regular task graphs LBS shows in improvement in makespan by 2-9% in comparison to MCPA. But for irregular PTGs, LBS shows 4-12% performance improvement over MCPA, which is significantly higher than for regular PTGs. Since EMTS uses evolutionary methods, it generates better schedule but at the expense of more computing time. The proposed LBS performance is inferior to EMTS by around 2-7% and 2-4% for regular and random PTGs respectively. Another metric used is the efficiency which is a measure of effective utilization of resources. The efficiency of LBS is more than MCPA, but the improvement is less than that for makespan. This is attributed to the fact task allocation in MCPA leads to better utilization of processors than in L BS. Efficiency of LBS is more than MCPA by 1-3% and less than EMTS by 1-2%. Another scheduler ILBS is compared with LBS and TwoL[rauber 1998], a good method to schedule set of independent tasks. ILBS exhibits performance improvement of 2-7% over LBS and 2-10% over TwoL for regular PTGs. For random PTGs improvement is 6-12% over LBS and 4-8% over TwoL. The increased performance of ILBS for regular PTGs is attributed to the method of finding of the best possible schedule at each level. The performance of the proposed novel method of sharing processors among multiple task graphs is compared with the most recent methods suggested by Tapke et al. The new method exhibited a performance improvement of 6-9% for all categories of task graph and is maximum when the demand for the processors is relatively more than available processors. A complete framework is developed to tailor together the pieces of work carried out. The new policies suggested to decide processor allotment for each task graph show 4-7% performance improvement in average completion time of a task graph. The proposed policy also exhibits better performance for the time required to complete a set of task graphs by 4-7%. Thus the new policy is good from both user and system perspectives. The approach to make list scheduling method more time efficient to generate a schedule for a NoC processor is implemented in DLS method and it recorded around 20-45% improvement in execution time. The time is recorded by executing the application on the cycle accurate multi2sim simulator. The new policy proposed to decide the cores allotment for each application performs better than the best methods found in the literature by 4-20%. The issues in scheduling multiple applications on a cluster of multi-core processors and a NoC processor is addressed in this thesis. The observed performance improvement indicate the usefulness of proposed methods.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The issue of humanitarian intervention has become increasingly prominent in worldwide debates regarding its role in ethics and legitimacy in international relations. Uncertainty arises as to whether there are any moral obligation for humanitarian intervention and the concerning justifications of the violation of state sovereignty. In viewing the matter ethically and applying Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s principle of cosmopolitan law from his 1795 essay Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Essay, humanitarian intervention can be established as a conflict between a cosmopolitan responsibility, which is to protect and promote human rights because of their universality, and an obligation to respect state sovereignty as a crucial basis for moral and political international order. Inevitably, fulfilling one set of responsibilities can involve the violation of the other in situations for example where governments are actively abusing the fundamental rights of their own citizens. Many Third World lead ers, consider the concept of humanitarian intervention to be potentially destabilising for the international system, and view it as an excuse for more powerful nations to undermine and threaten their state sovereignty (Ayoob, 2004; p.99). By using the United NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) as a reference point, this essay will investigate the relationships between states when dealing with human rights standards and cultural differences. In examining the doctrine of Ã¢â¬Ëthe responsibility to protectÃ¢â¬â¢, this essay will justify humanitarian intervention as a moral requirement of international order by focusing on the idea that the broader community of states must assume the responsibility of intervention when individual sovereign states are unw... ...World suspicions as being the WestÃ¢â¬â¢s manipulation for power, I have justified the need for intervention through the UN Declaration of Human Rights (1948). the need for an international Ã¢â¬Ëresponsibility to protectÃ¢â¬â¢. Through a brief overview of standardised political theory, I justified humanitarian intervention as a moral requirement for humanity. However, although the interest for a state to intervene must be weighed up against the outcomes of the intervention and no personal agendas from outside states can influence such interactions. In concluding the responsibility to protect encompasses the idea that sovereign states have a responsibility to protect their own citizens from avoidable catastrophe, but that when they are unwilling or unable to do so, the broader community of states must assume that responsibility as fellow citizens of the international community. Humanitarian Intervention Essay -- International Relations, Ethics The issue of humanitarian intervention has become increasingly prominent in worldwide debates regarding its role in ethics and legitimacy in international relations. Uncertainty arises as to whether there are any moral obligation for humanitarian intervention and the concerning justifications of the violation of state sovereignty. In viewing the matter ethically and applying Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s principle of cosmopolitan law from his 1795 essay Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Essay, humanitarian intervention can be established as a conflict between a cosmopolitan responsibility, which is to protect and promote human rights because of their universality, and an obligation to respect state sovereignty as a crucial basis for moral and political international order. Inevitably, fulfilling one set of responsibilities can involve the violation of the other in situations for example where governments are actively abusing the fundamental rights of their own citizens. Many Third World lead ers, consider the concept of humanitarian intervention to be potentially destabilising for the international system, and view it as an excuse for more powerful nations to undermine and threaten their state sovereignty (Ayoob, 2004; p.99). By using the United NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) as a reference point, this essay will investigate the relationships between states when dealing with human rights standards and cultural differences. In examining the doctrine of Ã¢â¬Ëthe responsibility to protectÃ¢â¬â¢, this essay will justify humanitarian intervention as a moral requirement of international order by focusing on the idea that the broader community of states must assume the responsibility of intervention when individual sovereign states are unw... ...World suspicions as being the WestÃ¢â¬â¢s manipulation for power, I have justified the need for intervention through the UN Declaration of Human Rights (1948). the need for an international Ã¢â¬Ëresponsibility to protectÃ¢â¬â¢. Through a brief overview of standardised political theory, I justified humanitarian intervention as a moral requirement for humanity. However, although the interest for a state to intervene must be weighed up against the outcomes of the intervention and no personal agendas from outside states can influence such interactions. In concluding the responsibility to protect encompasses the idea that sovereign states have a responsibility to protect their own citizens from avoidable catastrophe, but that when they are unwilling or unable to do so, the broader community of states must assume that responsibility as fellow citizens of the international community.