Sunday, May 24, 2020

All Behavior Caused By External Stimuli Operant Conditioning

All behavior caused by external stimuli operant conditioning). All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness. John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, are Classical conditioning Pavlov, Operant conditioning, Stimulus response that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The learner starts off as a clean slate and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again. In contrast, punishment both positive and negative decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again. Positive†¦show more content†¦After the meat powder and bell were presented together several times, the bell was used alone. Pavlov’s dogs, as predicted, responded by salivating to the sound of the bell without the food. The bell began as a neu tral stimulus (i.e. the bell itself did not produce the dogs. However, by pairing the bell with the stimulus that did produce the salivation response, the bell was able to acquire the ability to trigger the salivation response. Pavlov therefore demonstrated how stimulus-response are formed. He dedicated much of the rest of his career further exploring this finding. In technical terms, the meat powder is considered an unconditioned stimulus and the dog’s salivation is the unconditioned response. The bell is a neutral stimulus until the dog learns to associate the bell with food. Then the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus which produces the conditioned response of salivation after repeated pairings between the bell and food. John B. Watson further extended Pavlov’s work and applied it to human beings. Around 1921, Watson studied Albert, an 11-month-old infant child. The goal of the study was to condition Albert to become afraid of a white rat by pairing the white rat w ith a very loud noise. Behavior modification is a technique concerning the change in the undesired behavior and enhancing desired behavior. It is an approach that aims to modify the behavior of aShow MoreRelatedBehaviorism : A Psychological Perspective1018 Words   |  5 PagesArthur Espinoza Professor McMahon Psychology 101 11/2/15 Behaviorism Behaviorism is a psychological perspective that focuses on an individual’s behavior. The main theorist behind this perspective was John Broadus Watson, who established the psychological school of behaviorism. Through his behaviorist views, he spectated the behavior of humans and animals when put into different situations. 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